notes for chem.docx - ALesia Johnson Chapter 10 notes Gas...

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A’Lesia Johnson Chapter 10 notes- Gas physical properties - Expands spontaneously to fill container - Form homogeneous mixtures with each other Pressure Force per unit area P = F/A Newton (N) SI unit for force 1 N = 1 kg-m/s^2 Pascal (Pa) SI unit for pressure 1 Pa = 1 N/m^2 = 1 kg/m-s^2 Force (F) Force = mass*acceleration F=ma Standard atmospheric pressure Pressure sufficient to support a column of mercury 760 mm high (typical pressure at sea level) How a barometer works When the mercury-filled tube is inverted, some of the mercury flows out, but a column of mercury remains inside; this is due to the weight of Earth's atmosphere pushing on the mercury in the dish. For atmospheric pressure How a manometer works Pgas = Patm + Ph Pressure of the gas = atmospheric pressure + difference of height in two arms For pressure of enclosed gases Boyle's law
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For a constant quantity of gas at constant temperature, the THE VOLUME OF GAS IS INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL TO THE PRESSURE PV = constant Charles's law For a fixed quantity of gas at constant pressure, THE VOLUME IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO ITS ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE V/T = constant Avogadro's hypothesis EQUAL VOLUMES OF GAS at the same temperature and pressure CONTAIN EQUAL NUMBERS OF MOLECULES Avogadro's law For a gas at constant temperature and pressure, THE VOLUME OF GAS IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE NUMBER OF MOLES OF GAS V = constant*n Ideal-gas equation PV=nRT R is the gas constant (ex 0.08206 L-atm/mol-K) P is pressure V is volume T is temperature n is the number of moles Ideal gas
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  • Spring '11
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