2.5 MEASLES.PPT - Infectious Disease Measles mumps rubella diphtheria pertussis tetanus poliomyelitis Measles Transmission droplet Incubation 7 14 days

2.5 MEASLES.PPT - Infectious Disease Measles mumps rubella...

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Infectious Disease Measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis
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Measles Transmission: droplet Incubation: 7 – 14 days Does not occur in the first 6 months of life due to passive protection with maternal antibody Immunity following natural disease is lifelong
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Clinical Features Prodrome Measly / febrile Cough, conjunctival suffusion, rhinorrhoea Koplik spots – pathognomonic Post-eruptive stage MP rash behind ears and on face, progressing to whole body, and settles in 6 days Fever settles 2 days after onset of rash
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Measles Measly Conjunctivitis Tearing Photophobia Eyelid edema Infective during prodrome and till 4 days after the rash
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Koplik spots – may be absent Small white lesions on red base on gums next to 2 nd molar tooth on labial mucosa
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Complications: Common in malnourished children Otitis media, bronchitis, bronchopneumonia Giant cell pneumonia if immunity is impaired Diarrhoea Encephalo-myelitis (post-infectious) Drowsy,coma,convulsions several days after rash CSF: normal or few cells (lymphocytes)/ raised protein SSPE (Rare late complication ) degenerative neurological illness years after attack of measles
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Investigations Serology : measles IgM antibody WBC may be low ( < 1500 / u l) CXR Viral isolation / measles antigen Immunofluorescence ( CSF, serum, nasal secretions ) Viral culture Throat swab
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Treatment Symptomatic only Human pooled immunoglobulin can be given to immunocompromised children within 6 days of exposure Immunisation is available Revaccination is recommended on primary or secondary school entry
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SSPE – slow virus infection of brain A chronic encephalitis which occurs several years after measles infection Clinical features: Presents often in adolescence Cognitive regression / Personality change Myoclonic jerks / Seizures Choreoathetosis Decerebrate positioning Death within 1-2years
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SSPE Diagnostic investigations: High levels of measles antibody in the CSF and serum. (IgG and IgM) Characteristic periodic complexes which are high-voltage slow wave burst on a normal background EEG No effective treatment
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Chicken pox (varicella) Secondary Staphylococcal infection Most distinctive viral exanthem
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Varicella Transmission : airborne or contact Incubation : 14 – 21 days Infectious pre-rash and five days after rash appearance. Scabbed lesions are non-infective. Immunity following natural disease > 95%
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Clinical features Mild prodromal illness with fever 2-3 days Rash : face, scalp, and trunk, spreads centrifugally macules, papules, vesicles, pustules, crusts no scarring all stages may be seen at the same time
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Complications
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  • Fall '15
  • MrRosdi

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