Clar 120 Test 1 Notes

Clar 120 Test 1 Notes - Clar.120 Ancient Cities What is a...

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Clar.120 Ancient Cities What is a city? Cities are one of the things Anthropologists use to define complex societies. Why is it worth studying cities? Understanding a civilization The culture, art, political government Cities How Do We Define Them? In 1950 an Australian author named V Gordon Childe wrote Urban Revolution that suggested by looking at the earliest cities you can use it to figure out things about ancient institutions and can interpret the urban environment. V. Gordan Childe’s Definition of a city 1. Concentrations of a relatively large number of people in a restricted area Size Population 1. Developed social stratification Different types of burial goods Maintains order with high population Size of houses Quantity of wealth presence or absence of certain artifacts 1. Craft Specialization (and labor differentiation) and organized labor To produce an economic surplus and its appropriation by a central authority such as a king or deity Pottery Making, Weaving 1. Monumental Architecture Public Architecture such as tombs 1. Sophisticated Art 2. Writing (including archival systems and bureaucracy) Writing for Record Keeping Survived on Wood, Stone, Clay Linked to Complex Social Behavior Used for Writing Laws, religion, literature 1. Sciences 2. Long Distance Trade 3. A ruling group 4. Taxation or Tribute
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When you live in a community its important to pay taxes Participate in the military Participate in building public structures Where do cities come from? We don't know exactly how cities came to be People were once nomadic hunters but around 10,000 BC people started to settle down The first Agricultural villages were established in Turkey (Present Day) and Zagros Mts. 4000 BC- Cities start to develop near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Note: The first cities developed in the foothills of the Zagros Mts. and in the Mountains… NOT IN THE FLOOD PLAIN OF THE TIGRIS AND EUPHRATES Why in the Mountains and Not near the river Animals, Rainfall (Fertile Crescent) Defense to an extent More materials to build buildings Stone The Fertile Crescent is where people started agriculture and other things Neolithic Revolution- 9000 BCE (The end of affluence) Time of Hunters and Gatherers- a settled community, had a different mode of food production because of the domestication of animals – had to prepare the land and harvest the crops 7000 BCE- The lost of mobility, steady food, devote other time to art, building bigger things, and resulted in a larger population Jericho o One of the first settlements every excavated in the 1950’s o Kathleen Keplan (British)- Discovered Jericho o Substience Farming TEL - ARABIC WORD FOR MOUND o Population 300-600 people o First layers of Jericho are thought to have been built around 8000 BC Why is Jericho important? Inhibited for a Long Period of Time
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Clar 120 Test 1 Notes - Clar.120 Ancient Cities What is a...

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