chapter 11-3 notes.docx - Avogadros law one mole of any gas...

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Avogadro’s law – one mole of any gas will occupy the same volume as one mole of any other gas at the same Temperature and Pressure, despite mass differences. The volume occupied by one mole of a gas at STP is known as the standard molar volume of a gas. One mole = 22.4L Use this equivalence to convert between moles and Liters (volume). Gas Stoichiometry – apply Gay-Lussac law and Avogadro Law to calculate reaction involving gasses. Consider a balanced equation and mole ratios – apply Gay-Lussac law mole ratios are now = volume ratios. Therefore - 2CO (g) + O 2(g) ------------------------- 2CO 2(g) 2molecules 1 molecule 2 molecules 2 mol 1 mol 2 mol 2 volume 1 volume 2 volume Express the ratios of CO to O 2 (g) as 2 CO volume/1O 2 volume OR 1 O 2 volume/2 CO volume Example: Assume all volumes are measured at the same temperature and pressure. What volume of hydrogen gas is needed to react completely with 4.55L of oxygen gas to produce water vapor?? Start with a balanced equation 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) -- 2H 2 O (g) The Known is V = 4.55L O 2 (g) The unknown = V = 2H 2 O (g) 4.55L O 2 (g) x 2L H 2 /1L O 2 = 9.10 L H 2 The Ideal Gas Law – All the gas laws can be combined into a single equation PV=nRT . This is the mathematical relationship among pressure, volume, temperature, and the number of moles of a gas. The number of moles present will always affect at least one of the 3 quantities. If the number of moles is decreased for a sample at constant volume and temperature then the collision rate will increase- increasing the pressure.
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