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A Comparison of Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt This paper will focus on the similarities and differences between the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt. I will compare and contrast the geography and its effects on both of these early civilizations. Before the development of agriculture, living as hunter-gatherers in these areas was extremely difficult. The harsh, dry climate of both of these ancient civilizations could not sustain life (Ada, 2003). One major similarity between these early civilizations, and reason that they were each able to be established, is that the people of Mesopotamia and Egypt both settled next to major rivers. In Mesopotamia, between to the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and in Egypt, next to the Nile river (Ada, 2003). These vital rivers in both civilizations experienced flooding which enriched the land. Nutrients in the silt were left behind which made the soil extremely fertile for farming.