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`1)The Three Kingdoms (삼국사기 + 삼국유사-only source) – root of Korean historyNo monolithic, continuous states in ancient historyGeography ≠ political entity or bordersMigrationBorrowed from China – Buddhism (고구려 first) – no interference from ChinaConfucianism – armored mounted warrior – strict law – social stratificationGender equality Korguryo (주몽)-plunder, Silla (혁거세)paekche2)King Kwanggaet’o – led golden age of Korguryo“great expander of the Kingdom”, stele in Jilian, China, controversiesstele (erected 414, rediscovered 19thcentury3)Bone-Rank System – social hierarchy back then – 1000years lasted(성골(hallowed), 진골(true) 6두품), manifestation of the hierarchical social structure, 계급간의 이동X4)Queen Sŏndŏk – 1stfemale ruler in east Asian historyLaid foundation of unification of three kingdom9thstory pagoda, Buddhist monasteris, sending monks to china에밀레종, observatory, 5)Ch’oe Ch’iwŏn (867-?) – 6thhead rank, strict order system, great mind of unified Silla.passed Chinese gov exam proposed exam system to appoint men of talent – Kyewon Pilgyong Chip (20 essay) unable to rise high in gove self imposed exile away from capital6) Parhae – puyo – korguryo – Parhae, forgotten until 19thcTae Cho yong – Koguryo or MalgalChoe Chi won “parhae = Korguryo”common view = elites are Korguryo, lower classes are malgal해동성국 – 고구려 문화 “온돌”King Mu “recovered koguryo land and continued puyo customs” letter to Japan7)Later Three KingdomsKorguryo (궁예 – the ugly, the violent) – Silla prince, monk to solider to king, call himself Buddha, gathered farmers, local landlord, and monksPaekche (yi kyonhwan) – surrendered to Wangkwon, overthrown by oldest son King Kyungsun – last Sillan King8)Wang Kŏn (King T’aejo, r. 918-943) – lay the strong foundation of Koryo with efficient political system, national teacher.Family of maritime interests, Kaesung, support from landlords and merchants, Kyonsun highest post in his govtReduced tax in 고려, national teacher(국사), many wives, gave Wang surname, accommodate fallen Parhae, paekche, silla elites and people
`9)Kim Pusik (1075-1151) – 삼국사기, 묘청의난 진압, 통일신라Kim’s desire to affirm Koryo as the legitimate successor to Silla (삼국사기)History as a guide to correct gov’t and personal behaviorInfluential in shaping Korean views of themselvesMarginalized Koguryo and Parhae – Korean history firmly in 반도10) Myoch’ŏng – rebellion, - Shin Chae ho highly praised it. It will alter whole Korean history more strong and independent. – failure of the movement decreased the literal ideology from Koryon people -> fall of Koryo eventually, increasing influence of 사대부move capital to 서경, King Injong built palace in 서경, civil officer gainst itKim pu sik suppressed rebellion11) Military Coup of 1170 – military officials gained political power for a century, which is huge part of Koryon period.