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Chapter 4- Culture

Chapter 4- Culture - CULTURE Nature of Culture and...

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Unformatted text preview: CULTURE Nature of Culture and Interpersonal Communication What is culture and how is it transmitted? Culture is to people what water to a fish Culture: the relatively specialized lifestyle of a group of people (values, beliefs, artifacts, ways of behaving) that are passed from one generation to the next by means of communication (not gene) ENCULTURATION: the process through which you learn the culture into which you're born (your native culture) ACCULTURATION: The process by which you learn the rules and norms of a culture that is different from your native culture and that modifies your original or native culture MYTHS ABOUT CULTURE: CULTURE is not SYNONYMOUS WITH RACE, OR NATIONALITY Coculture: membership in a group that is part of an encompassing culture Age (e.g., teens, senior citizens) Race/ethnicity (e.g.: African American, Latino) Nationality (e.g., expatriates, immigrants from a particular country) Sexual orientation How do cultures differ from each other? How do these differences affect interpersonal communication? DIMENSIONS OF CULTURE Hofstede (http://www.geerthofstede.com/) I) Power distance: describes the degree to which members of a society accept an unequal distribution of power LOW VS HIGHPOWER LOWPOWER DISTANCE HIGHPOWER DISTANCE Minimizing the difference between various social classes informal Challenging authority is acceptable USA, Austria, Denmark, Ireland, etc. Differences between the powerful and powerless is clear (use of titles) More formal Revere authoritarianism Respect of hierarchy Philippines, Brazil, India, Mexico COLLECTIVISM VS INDIVIDUALISM describes the relationship between individuals and the collectivity in a given culture Collectivism: place greater emphasis on the group (Latin American and Asian cultures) Individualism: more emphasis on the individual (e.g.: US, Canada, Germany) Collectivismindividualism COLLECTIVISM The group's goals are more important Person should take care of the extended family before self Success depends on your contribution to Cooperation is emphasized INDIVIDUALISM Your own goals are most important You should take care of yourself and immediate family Success depends on your surpassing others Competition is emphasized UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE The degree to which members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous situations and how much they try to avoid them. HIGH VS LOW UAI HIGH Need for defined rules Predictable pattern imitation LOW Following established rules isn't necessarily expected innovation MASCULINITY AND FEMININITY Extent to which a society stresses achievement or nurture. Masculinity: ambition, acquisition of wealth, and differentiated gender roles Femininity: caring and nurturing behaviors, sexuality equality, and more fluid gender roles MASCULINITY VS FEMININITY High Masculine social norms Ego oriented Money and things are important Live in order to work Economic growth high priority Conflict solved through force Most important in life Only men can be priests Low Masculine (Feminine) Relationship oriented Quality of life and people are important Work in order to live Environment protection high priority Conflict solved through negotiation Less important in life Both men and women as priests Politics and economics religion High masculine Work Larger gender wage gap Fewer women in management Preference for higher pay Low masculine Small gender wage gap More women in management Preference for fewer working hours High Family and school Traditional family structure Girls cry, boys don't, boys fight, girls don't Failing is a disaster low Flexible family structure Both boys and girls cry; neither fight Failing a minor accident TIME ORIENTATION Displaced time orientation: time is viewed exactly Diffused time orientation: time is seen as approximate rather than exact MONOCRONIC Do one thing at a time Concentrate on the job Take time commitments (deadlines, schedules) seriously Are committed to the job Adhere religiously to plans Are concerned about not disturbing others; follow rules of privacy and consideration Show great respect for private property; seldom borrow or lend Emphasize promptness Are accustomed to shortterm relationships POLYCHRONIC Do many things at once Are highly distractible and subject to interruptions Consider time commitments an objective to be achieved, if possible Are committed to people and human relationships Change plans often and easily Are more concerned with those who are closely related (family, friends, close business associates) than with privacy Borrow and lend things often and easily Have strong tendency to build lifetime relationships KNOW YOURSELF USA (Hofstede's scores) PDI (Power distance): 40 (world av. 55) (UAI) Uncertainty Avoidance: 46 (world av.64) Highest score on Individualism : 91 Masculinity: 62 (world av. 50) WHAT IS INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION? Communication between persons who have different cultural beliefs, values, or ways of behaving ...
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