Exam 4 study guide - Exam 4 Study Guide 1. Name 4 different...

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Exam 4 Study Guide 1. Name 4 different ways that the beginning and ending of adolescence can be defined, and provide an example of each method of determining the boundaries of adolescence. Biological: o puberty, physical and hormone changes o Psychological: o identity development, morality, relationships Cognitive: o thinking processes Cultural: o societal changes, sexuality, social responsibility 2. If a research study indicates that one variable is correlated with another variable, does this mean that one causes the other? Why or why not? No, it only shows a relationship because there may be other factors or exceptions Correlation does not equal causation Correlation is only a relationship NOT a cause 3. Describe Uri Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model, including the primary components and examples of factors within each component. Thought that you cannot take any one person and compare to one slice, you have to look at as a whole picture 4 levels of ecology Microsystem o Individual characteristics, functioning and perceptions, family in immediate environment with extended sustained interaction Mesossytem o Setting where individual interacts (neighborhood, school, church); where a person is socialized outside the home Exosystem o Factors beyond where the individual interacts but affects development, e.g. social service system, parent workplace, transportation agencies Macrosystem o Cultural and societal values guided by religion, media, economics, legislation, time in history; often expressed as sociological constructs 4. Biological information to know: HPG Axis: the neurophysiological pathway that involves the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads Prefrontal cortex, particularly its development during adolescence: Dorsolateral: outer and upper areas of the front of the brain, planning ahead and controlling impulses Ventromedial: lower and central, important for gut-level decision making orbitofrontal: region of the brain located directly behind the eyes, evaluation of risk and reward Limbic system and its changes during adolescence: Neurotransmitters (the chemicals that permit the transfer of electrical charges between neurons) Changes in dopamine and serotonin, in that parts of he brain that process emotional stimuli
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Individuals become more emotional, more responsive to stress, more interested but less responsive to rewards synaptic pruning the process through which unnecessary connections between neurons are eliminated,
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Exam 4 study guide - Exam 4 Study Guide 1. Name 4 different...

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