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Psyc Exam 3 Study Guide

Psyc Exam 3 Study Guide - Chapter 10 Two main themes that...

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Chapter 10 Two main themes that permeate the study of human development are: transition and continuity Development is the sequence of age-related changes that occurred as a person progresses from conception to death. It includes both the biological and behavioral changes that take place as people grow older. Development is a life long process. The life span can be divided into four periods: 1) the prenatal period 2) childhood, 3) adolescence, and 4) adulthood. Prenatal Period A. Prenatal Development (Progress Before Birth) a. Conception begins when fertilization creates a zygote, a one celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg. i. All the other cells in your body developed from this single cell. b. The prenatal period extends from conception to birth, usually encompassing nine months of pregnancy. B. The Course of Prenatal Development a. The germinal stage is the first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first two weeks after conception. i. During the implantation process the placenta begins to form. The placenta is a structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mother’s bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother. b. The embryonic stage is the second stage of prenatal development, lasting from two weeks until the end of the second month. i. During this stage most of the vital organs and bodily systems begin to form in the developing organism which is now called an embryo. ii. This is a stage of vulnerability because virtually all of the basic physiological structures are being formed. Most miscarriages occur during this period. Also most major structural birth defects results from problems that occur during the embryonic stage.
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c. The fetal stage is the third stage of prenatal development, lasting from two months through birth. i. First two months bring rapid bodily growth as muscles and bones begin to form. Now the organism is called a fetus and is capable of physical movements. ii. During the final three months brain cells multiply at brisk pace. iii. Sometime between 22 and 26 weeks the fetus reaches the age of viability which is the age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature birth. iv. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is a collection of congenial (inborn) problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy. Childhood A. Motor Development: This refers to the progression of muscular coordination required for physical activities. a. The cephalocaudal trend: the head to foot direction of motor development i. Children tend to gain control of the upper part of their bodies before the lower part. b. The proximodistal trend is the center outward direction of motor development. i.
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Psyc Exam 3 Study Guide - Chapter 10 Two main themes that...

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