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Chapter13blackrw2-1

Chapter13blackrw2-1 - 13 13.2 13.3 Properties of Solutions...

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13 Properties of Solutions Visualizing Concepts 13.2 H 3  contains the interaction of a cation with the solvent. In the figure for Exercise 13.1, we see a  single   Na +   cation   separated   from   the   bulk   sample,   and   solvent   molecules   interacting with each other as well as the cation. The diagram shows attractive solvent-solvent  and ion-solvent interactions, which contribute to an overall negative (–)  H. In Figure 13.4, only  H 3  is negative. 13.3 The pink solid is hydrated  O, xH CoCl   , CoCl 2 2 2  where x is a specific integer. The waters of  hydration are either associated with Co 2 + , Cl , or sit in specific sites in the crystal lattice. When  heated in an oven, the water molecules incorporated into the crystal lattice gradually gain kinetic  energy and vaporize. The blue solid is anhydrous CoCl 2 , absent the waters of hydration and with  a different solid-state structure than the pink hydrate. 13.4 Diagram (b) is the best representation of a saturated solution. There is some undissolved solid  with   particles   that   are   close   together   and   ordered,   in   contact   with   a   solution containing mobile, separated solute particles. As much solute has dissolved as can  dissolve, leaving some undissolved solid in contact with the saturated solution. 13.5 Solubility increases in the order Ar, 1.50  ×  10 – 3   M  < Kr, 2.79  ×  10 – 3   M  < Xe, 5  ×  10 – 5   M , the  order of increasing polarizability. As the molar mass of the ideal gas increases, atomic size  increases and the electron cloud is less tightly held by the nucleus, causing the cloud to be more  polarizable. The greater the polarizability, the stronger the dispersion forces between the gas  atoms and water, the more likely the gas atom is to stay dissolved rather than escape the  solution, the greater the solubility of the gas. 13.7 (a) Yes, the   molarity   changes with a change in temperature. Molarity is defined as moles  solute per unit volume of solution. If solution volume is different, molarity is different. (b) No,  molality  does not change with change in temperature. Molality is defined as moles  solute per kilogram of solvent. Even though the volume of solution has changed due to  increased kinetic energy, the mass of solute and solvent have not changed, and the  molality stays the same. 13.8 Ideally, 0.50 L. If the volume outside the balloon is very large compared to 0.25 L, solvent will  flow across the semipermeable membrane until the molarities of the inner and outer solutions are  equal, 0.10  M . This requires an “inner” solution volume twice as large as the initial volume, or 
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