The US Department of Health and Human Services (2017) defines medication adherence as to abide by the prescribed medication regimen making sure to take the prescribed medication exactly as the provider prescribed, and to completion even if symptoms subside. By doing so, theimmune system will be protected and there will a reduction in the risk of drug resistance and HIV treatment failure. If the HIV patient does not stick to a firm schedule, the HIV virus will replicate and mutate, thus producing a “drug-resistant HIV” (USDHHS, 2017). Medication adherence can be difficult due to multiple issues: medication side effects, difficulty swallowing the pills, hectic work schedule, unstable living our housing situation, depression, drug use, fear of HIV status to friends and family, lack of monetary resources or health insurance (USDHHS, 2017). Krummenacher, Cavassini, Bugnin, & Schneider (2011) alsoadded that many patients still do not fully understand the disease itself and how the treatment works. According to Arcangelo, Peterson, Wilbur, & Reinhold (2017), it is of utmost importance for the healthcare provider to assess patients who are at risk for medication nonadherence such asdrug abuse, mental illness, health literacy, and stigma. Currently, HIV drug therapy is successful and has led to a decline in the number of new AIDS cases and deaths. Many HIV patients are leading healthier lives; but must be educated that protection from the deadly disease should continue (USDHHS, 2017). As a medical professional, I agree with the literature stating that lack of education and understanding of the disease is cause for complacency. Not only those at higher risk of acquiring HIV should understand the disease and its complications, general knowledge should be given to all. As modern technology enables advanced drug therapy, many are unable to afford it. I have also described below other factors that affect medication adherence. Preventing the disease should be first line treatment in an attempt to prevent situations such as patient compliance to medication regiman.