ESS 7 – Midterm Study Guide Winter 2016.docx

ESS 7 – Midterm Study Guide Winter 2016.docx - ESS 7...

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ESS 7 – Midterm Study Guide Winter 2016 Chapter 1: • Describe the four components of the Earth System A: Biosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and atmosphere • Describe the major categories of Earth materials A: Iron 34.6%, Oxygen 29.5%, Silicon 15.2%, Magnesium 12.7%, Other 8% • What are the principal layers of Earth and their major compositional differences? How did the layers form? A: Crust: Continental (granitic, high silica content) and Oceanic (Basaltic, higher iron and magnesium content) Mantle: Upper and Lower; solid rock layer between the crust and the core Core: Outer – liquid; Inner – solid -When earth began to form, denser materials sank such as iron, and others were more buoyant so they rose (floated) to the top • How do temperature and pressure change with increasing depth in the Earth? A: Temperature and pressure increases as you move towards the core • What is the Earth’s magnetic field and how is it generated? A: southern and northern polarity with lines of flux; opposites attract • Describe the difference between continental and oceanic crust A: • What is the difference between the lithosphere and asthenosphere? A: Lithosphere is the outermost 100-150 km of earth; rigid material that moves as tectonic plates; composed of crust and upper mantle. Asthenosphere is upper mantle below the lithosphere; flows as a soft solid; lithosphere floats on mantle Chapter 2: • Describe Wegener’s continental drift hypothesis and his supporting evidence A: hypothesis that continents are mobile; were a former supercontinent called Pangea. His evidence was the Permian glacial till found on four continents (South America, Africa, Antarctica, Australia, and India), fossil evidence, and matching geology.
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