ESS7 Final Exam Study Guide.docx

ESS7 Final Exam Study Guide.docx - Earthquakes Determine P...

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Earthquakes: • Determine P and S wave arrival times on a seismogram • Locate the epicenter on a graph based on data from seismograms Tsunamis • Explain which type(s) of earthquakes generate tsunamis, and describe how they are generated A: Converging plates. Coastal bulge, overriding plate ruptures, releasing energy and sudden displacement of large volume of water. • Describe the properties of a wave and tsunami wave propagation through an ocean A: Crest (peak), trough (dip/parabola), wave length and wave height. • Calculate the steepness of a wave A: Steepness = Height/ length • Describe the warning signs of a tsunami (i.e. what did Tilly Smith know?) A: Sea level fluctuations, receding shorelines. Orogenesis • Describe the process of orogenesis and the impact of various tectonic forces on rock deformation and mountain building A: Orogenesis is the formation of mountains, by the folding and faulting of earth’s crust. Brittle deformation: rocks break by fracturing (shallow crust). Ductile deformation: rocks deform by flow and folding (deeper crust). Joints: fractures that have no offset (brittle). Faults: fractures that are offset (brittle). Folds: layers that are bent by slow plastic flow (ductile). Foliation: planar metamorphic fabric (ductile). • What are the various types of stress and how are they generated? How do they impact mountain building? A: Compressional: squeezing Tensional: pulling apart Shear: sliding past • Explain why mountains are built and how they fall A: plate tectonics. Fall by erosion. Relative Geologic Dating • Apply each of the principles of geologic dating (i.e. Principle of Superposition, etc) to determine the relative ages of rock in a given strata A: Relative dating: establishes the sequence of events using logic; don’t know exactly when they occurred. Absolute (numerical) dating: determines exactly when a specific event took place; measured in years. Principle of uniformitarianism: physical processes that we observe today operated in the same way in the geological past.
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