ESS7 Final Exam Study Guide.docx

# ESS7 Final Exam Study Guide.docx - Earthquakes Determine P...

This preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

Earthquakes: • Determine P and S wave arrival times on a seismogram • Locate the epicenter on a graph based on data from seismograms Tsunamis • Explain which type(s) of earthquakes generate tsunamis, and describe how they are generated A: Converging plates. Coastal bulge, overriding plate ruptures, releasing energy and sudden displacement of large volume of water. • Describe the properties of a wave and tsunami wave propagation through an ocean A: Crest (peak), trough (dip/parabola), wave length and wave height. • Calculate the steepness of a wave A: Steepness = Height/ length • Describe the warning signs of a tsunami (i.e. what did Tilly Smith know?) A: Sea level fluctuations, receding shorelines. Orogenesis • Describe the process of orogenesis and the impact of various tectonic forces on rock deformation and mountain building A: Orogenesis is the formation of mountains, by the folding and faulting of earth’s crust. Brittle deformation: rocks break by fracturing (shallow crust). Ductile deformation: rocks deform by flow and folding (deeper crust). Joints: fractures that have no offset (brittle). Faults: fractures that are offset (brittle). Folds: layers that are bent by slow plastic flow (ductile). Foliation: planar metamorphic fabric (ductile). • What are the various types of stress and how are they generated? How do they impact mountain building? A: Compressional: squeezing Tensional: pulling apart Shear: sliding past • Explain why mountains are built and how they fall A: plate tectonics. Fall by erosion. Relative Geologic Dating • Apply each of the principles of geologic dating (i.e. Principle of Superposition, etc) to determine the relative ages of rock in a given strata A: Relative dating: establishes the sequence of events using logic; don’t know exactly when they occurred. Absolute (numerical) dating: determines exactly when a specific event took place; measured in years. Principle of uniformitarianism: physical processes that we observe today operated in the same way in the geological past.

This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

### What students are saying

• As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

• I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

• The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern