Lecture17Grayscale.pdf

Lecture17Grayscale.pdf - Announcements The final exam will...

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3/13/17 1 Announcements The final exam will be held on Thursday March 23 rd from 3-6 pm IN THE REC GYM IA led Review Session on Tuesday, March 21st 6:30 – 9:20 pm in York 2722 Scripps extra credit due to your IA by Friday 3/17 NO LATE PAPERS WILL BE ACCEPTED Not all of the sections are yet >50% for CAPE evaluations of the course/me AND IAs Clicker question There are plenty of resources for a species of fern to live throughout a forest, but it is outcompeted by short shrubs in areas that get more sunlight. What is the domain where the ferns actually live called? A) Fundamental Niche B) Realized Niche Clicker question Two populations of rats fight each other for access to feed at the prime location where fishing boats dock and dispose of their waste. This is an example of: A) Interspecific competition B) Intraspecific competition
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3/13/17 2 Clicker question The rats resolve their battle when one population continues to feed on fish parts, and another moves on to eat tree nuts. This leads to A) Habitat differentiation B) Character displacement C) Vicariance D) Dispersal Predation : consumption of one organism by another Predators: subdue prey, consume their tissue - consume many prey over lifetime Scavenging predators combine predation and scavenging (e.g., many ants, yellowjackets, coyotes, hyenas, skuas)
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3/13/17 3 Parasitoids: intermediate between predators and parasites -develop on or in host, forming intimate association -usually kill host and consume it entirely -range from 1 to several parasitoids per host Parasites: develop on or in host, form intimate association -usually do not kill host, consume part of it -many individual parasites can occur on a host Parasite: The bot fly
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3/13/17 4 Herbivores: eat whole plants or parts of plants function like “predators” when they eat whole plants (or seeds) function like “parasites” when they eat parts of a single plant many graze or browse parts of many plants e.g., deer, grazing fish, butterflies, harvester ants Invasive herbivores on islands Can cause massive damage to native plants (1) Predator growth rate comparable to that of prey/host (2) May have high dispersal ability (3) May be able to switch resources based on prey availability -Time delay between a consumer’s ability to increase in number as a result of prey consumption and changes in prey population size can generate cyclical population behavior. Predator-prey relationship regulates population size
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3/13/17 5 Lynx & hare populations exhibit 10-year cycles (note slight lag in phase) Cycles in a host-parasitoid interaction (again note phase lag) IV. Trophic structure Food chains link the trophic levels of an ecosystem from producers to top carnivores Decomposers (not shown here) break down organic matter from all trophic levels.
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3/13/17 6 Food chains can be linked together into food webs Arrows indicate consumption and point toward the consumer – direction of energy flow.
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