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Lesson 5 - Increasing Flexibility Through Stretching...

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Unformatted text preview: Increasing Flexibility Through Stretching Lifetime Fitness Lesson 5 Chapter 6 Why is it important to have good flexibility? Flexibility Defined as the range of motion possible about a given joint or series of joints Specific to a given joint or movement When limited problems with extremity motion may be impacted negatively Essential to healthy living If joint degeneration occurs: Painless, unrestricted joint motion is lost Uncoordinated and awkward movements may predispose individual to injury (i.e. low back pain) Increased flexibility may assist with balance, performance and reaction time Efficacy has been questioned relative to injury prevention Many believe it is critical with regard to injury prevention Should be performed after warmup What structures in the body can limit flexibility? Bone Fat Skin Scar tissue Muscles and tendons Ligaments Stretching takes advantage of elastic properties of muscle Active and Passive Range of Motion Active range of motion (AROM) Motion of a joint generated by a muscle contraction Not always an indicator of joint stiffness or looseness Passive range of motion (PROM) Portion of total range of motion through which a joint may be moved passively, without active muscle contraction Movement beyond AROM Agonist vs. Antagonist Muscles Agonist muscle The muscle that contracts and generates the desired joint motion (i.e. quadriceps when generating knee extension) Antagonist muscle Muscle that stretches in response to agonist muscle contraction (i.e. hamstrings stretch as quadriceps contract to extend knee) Balance between agonists and antagonists is critical for coordinated, smooth joint motion What are the different stretching techniques? Goal of a flexibility program should be to improve joint range of motion Techniques include: Ballistic stretching Static stretching Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) Ballistic (Dynamic) Stretching Involves bouncing movements to stretch a particular muscle group Some concerns have been voiced relative to safety and injury Mimics sport/physical activity May not be appropriate for sedentary individuals Static Stretching Effective and popular technique Passive stretching Utilize agonist contraction to stretch antagonist 68 second hold Go to point of pain and back off and hold for 30 seconds (3 to 4 times) Controlled, less chance of injury Not dynamic Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Various techniques involving muscle contractions and relaxation Slowreversalholdrelax Contractrelax Holdrelax Typically involves a pushing phase (10 sec) followed by a relaxation phase (10 sec) Best if performed with a partner Partner is able to provide some additional passive pressure to increase ROM and stretch Practical Application While all three stretching methods are adequate there is still debate as to which is most effective Ballistic stretching is very appropriate for highly trained individuals Static is most widely used Simple and does not require assistance Full, nonrestricted ROM can be achieved over time PNF can result in dramatic increases The Pilates Method Conditioning program that improves muscle control, flexibility, coordination, strength and tone Enhances body awareness, improves body alignment and breathing, increases movement efficiency Designed to stretch and strengthen muscles through a sequence of carefully performed movements Goal Develop a healthy self image through posture, coordination and flexibility Enhance the body without stressing heart and lungs Yoga Based on philosophy that illness is related to poor mental attitude, posture and diet Reduce stress through mental and physical approaches Used to unite mind and body Involves various postures and breathing exercises Designed to increase mobility and flexibility Slow, deep, diaphragmatic breathing is an important part of yoga Deep breathing Lowers blood pressure and heart rate Has calming effect Increases endorphin production Is there a relationship between strength and flexibility? Strength training does not always result in decreased flexibility Believed that muscle bound = zero flexibility? Strength training will provide individual with ability to develop dynamic flexibility through full range of motion May enhance powerful and coordinated movements essential for athletics Coexist Accurate joint ROM measures are difficult Various devices have been developed and utilized How do you know if you have good flexibility? Goniometer Sit and reach boxes Multiple tests have also been developed Shoulder lift test Trunk extension test Summary Flexibility is the ability to move a joint through a full range of motion Stretching techniques include ballistic, static, and PNF Strength training if done correctly can improve flexibility ...
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