Mayhorn-Test2

Mayhorn-Test2 - Outline: Motivation What is a Motivation?...

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Outline: Motivation What is a Motivation? How Motivations Affect Behavior Types of Motives Hunger Eating Disorders: Obesity and Anorexia Arousal
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Definition Motivation- the general term for the process of starting, directing, and maintaining physical and psychological activities.
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How motivations affect behavior Preferences for one activity over another Vigor or intensity of response Persistence of organized patterns of action towards a goal
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Types of Motivations Primary/Simple Motives- serve biological needs; common to all animals (e.g., hunger etc.) Complex Motives-learned behaviors typically involving social interaction
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Hunger as a motive Stomach contractions. Hunger is tied to blood glucose level. Role of the hypothalamus Lateral portion- tells us when to eat Ventromedial portion- tells us when to stop eating External Cues Diet Social Factors
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Eating Disorder: Obesity Bodily Factors Digestive apparatus Lower metabolic rate Genetic Factors Twin studies Behavioral Factors Externality Hypothesis
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Eating Disorder: Anorexia Nervosa Three phases: Phase 1: Increased concern for physical appearance Phase 2: Increased fear that eating will make them fat Phase 3: Problem admission and increased food intake Treatments Bulimia
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What Causes Eating Disorders? Hormonal Imbalance Hypothalamic Dysfunction Family Conflict Control of Self Fear of Sexuality Cultural Pressures
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Arousal as a Motivation Sensory Deprivation Studies Humans are motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal Optimal Arousal is Task Dependent! Easy tasks- higher optimal level of arousal Moderately difficult tasks- medium level Difficult tasks- lower level of arousal
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Outline: Learning I What is Learning? Types of Conditioning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Applications of Classical Conditioning ***Discussion of Test #1***
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Definition Learning = any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs because of experience
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Types of Conditioning Classical Conditioning: learning associations between 2 stimulus events Pavlov’s dogs Little Albert Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning: learning association between behavior and consequences
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Classical Conditioning: Terms to Remember Unconditioned (Not learned) Stimulus: stimulus elicits reflexive response; EX- smell of food Unconditioned Response: reflexive (automatic) response; EX- salivation to smell of food Conditioned (learned) Stimulus: an initially neutral stimulus that is often paired with the unconditioned stimulus; EX- bell Conditioned Response: learned response ; EX- salivation to bell (very similar to unconditioned response but NOT the same)
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Terms Con’t Extinction: conditioned response disappears Stimulus Generalization- conditioned response appears with similar stimuli; EX- different bells Discrimination- conditioned response only appears with specific stimuli
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Watson’s Little Albert UCS: Loud noise UCR: Albert cries CS: Rat paired with loud noise CR: Albert cries
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Applications of Classical Conditioning Alcoholism Phobias Taste aversion/animal training
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This note was uploaded on 03/20/2008 for the course PSY 201 taught by Professor Mayhorn during the Spring '08 term at N.C. State.

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Mayhorn-Test2 - Outline: Motivation What is a Motivation?...

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