21.1 reading notes.docx - 21.1 Taking on Segregation The...

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21.1 Taking on Segregation The Segregation System - Civil Rights Act of 1875- outlawed segregation in public facilities by decreeing that everyone should have equal accommodations - 1883 Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional Plessy vs. Ferguson - Limits of African American rights - 1890 LA required railroads to provide equal but separate accommodations for white and colored - P vs F, SC said that the law didn’t violate the 14th Amendment (guaranteed all Americans equal treatment under the law) - Jim Crow Laws (laws aimed at separating the races) - No marriage between blacks and whites, separate schools, restrooms, etc - Signs read Colored Water, No Blacks Allowed, Whites Only Segregation Continues into the 20th Century - Migration of Southern AAs from racism (increased during WW1) - Sharecroppers abandoned the farms for promise of industrial jobs in Northern cities - Events of WW2 led to civil rights movement - 1. Demand for soldiers created opportunities for AAs, Latinos, and white women - 2. 700,000 AAs served in armed forces, so gradually had to end discriminatory policies that kept them from serving in fighting units - AAs determined to fight for their own freedom after defeating Fascist regimes overseas - 3. During the war, civil rights organizations campaigned for AA voting rights and challenged Jim Crow Laws. P Roosevelt issued presidential directive of prohibiting racial discrimination by federal agencies and all companies engaged in war work Challenging Segregation in Court - Since 1909, NAACP fought to end segregation - Charles Hamilton Houston, professor who trained AA law students and served chief legal counsel for NAACP from 1934-38 The NAACP Legal Strategy - Nation was spending 10x money educating white child as did AA - Houston chose to focus on organization’s limited resources on challenging segregated public education - He placed the team (law students who would take cases to SC) under Thurgood Marshall (won 29/32 cases) - 1946 Morgan vs Virginia, SC declared unconstitutional those state laws mandating segregated seating on interstate buses - 1950 Sweatt v Painter that state law schools must admit black applicants even if separate black schools exist - Another case ruled that blacks admitted to state graduate schools were entitled to use all of school’s facilities Brown v Board of Education - Marshall’s best victory: May 17, 1954 - Brown v. Board of Education
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