reading notes 21.2-3, 23.1-2.docx

reading notes 21.2-3, 23.1-2.docx - 21.2 The Triumphs of a...

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21.2 - The Triumphs of a Crusade Freedom Riders: one of the civil rights activists who rode buses through the South in early 1960s to challenge segregation New Volunteers - Anniston, Alabama - 200 whites attacked Bus Two with fire bomb - CORE’s freedom riders couldn’t continue bc bus companies refused to carry them any further - Diane Nash (SNCC leader) called CORE director James Farmer that the Nashville students wanted to continue freedom ride - “Troops battered, pick up baton” - SNCC volunteers rode into Birmingham, Police Commissioner Eugene (Bull) Connor’s men forced them off the bus, beat them up - But the young ppl returned to Birmingham and occupied whites-only waiting room at terminal (18 hours) - US Attorney General Robert Kennedy convinced driver to proceed, then the volunteers set for Montgomery May 20 Arrival of Federal Marshals - Alabama officials promised Kennedy riders would be protected, but no police were stationed - Mob of whites beat up the riders - John Doar (Justice Department official) called attorney general in panic - The violence was what the freedom riders wanted and expected so that newspapers would cover the event and denounce the beatings - Atlanta Constitution criticized the freedom ride, and towards the police that refused to protect the riders - JFK wanted to give freedom riders more direct support - Justice Department sent 400 US marshals to protect riders on last part of journey to Jackson, MI - Attorney general and Interstate Commerce Commission issued order banning segregation in all interstate travel facilities (waiting rooms, restrooms, lunch counters) James Meredith: Air Force veteran, won federal court case that allowed him to enroll in all-white University of Mississippi (Ole Miss) Integrating Ole Miss - After interstate travel facilities became more integrated, civil rights workers turned to integrating Southern schools and movement into additional Southern towns - Meredith was denied registration as student by Governor Ross Barnett - After Eisenhower’s precedent, JFK ordered federal marshals to escort Meredith to registrar's office - Barnett responded that he will never surrender - Sep 30, riots and two deaths. Took over 5,000 soldiers, 200 arrests, and 15 hours to stop rioters - Fed officials accompanied Meredith to class, protected his parents from nightriders who shot house Heading into Birmingham - 1963 Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth (head of Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights) wanted to do something about Birmingham (city known for strict enforcement of total segregation) - Birmingham had history of racial violence - Wanted to test power of nonviolence, so Shuttlesworth invited MLK and SCLC to help desegregate city - King led band of marchers on Good Friday (April 12), but Police Commissioner Bull Connor arrested them - AA children marched in Birmingham, aka “children’s crusade” - Protests, economic boycott, negative media coverage convinced Birmingham officials to meet demands for desegregation -
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