Know the types of pain (ex: intractable, neuropathic, visceral, referred, ect):Pain is the most common reason people seek medical care in the United States. Pain is whatever the patient says it is!Cutaneous or superficial pain: arises in the skin or the subcutaneous tissue. Examples would be a papercut or the pain from touching a hot object.Visceral pain:caused by the stimulation of deep internal pain receptors, most often in the abdominal cavity, cranium, or thorax. Visceral pain may feel like a local, achy discomfort to more widespread, intermittent, and crampy pain. Examples are: Menstrual cramps, labor pain, gastrointestinal infections, bowel disorders, and organ cancers all producevisceral pain. Somatic pain:originates in the ligaments, tendons, nerves, blood vessels, and bones. Deep somatic pain is more diffuse than cutaneous pain and tends to last longer. Examples are: A fracture or sprain, arthritis, and bone cancer.Radiating pain:starts at the origin but extends to other locations. Example: sore throat but it is also felt in the head and ears.Referred pain: occurs in an area that is distant from the original site. Example: shoulder pain during a heart attack.Phantom pain:is pain that is perceived to originate from an area that has been surgically removed. Example: someone who has had a leg amputation feeling pain in a limb that is no longer there. Feelings of the presence of the limb, tingling, itching and burning are common.Psychogenic pain:refers to pain that is believed to arise from the mind. The patient perceives the pain despite the fact that no physical cause can be identified. Psychogenic pain can be just as severe as pain from a physical cause.Neuropathic pain: is a chronic pain that arises when injury to one or more nerves results in repeated transmission of pain signals even in the absence of painful stimuli. The nerve injury may originate from any of a variety of conditions, such as poorly controlled diabetes, a stroke, atumor, alcoholism, amputation, or a viral infection. Neuropathic pain is described as burning, numbness, itching, and “pins and needles” prickling pain.Nociceptive pain: Pain in response to potentially damaging stimuli such as trauma, surgery or inflammation. Tissue injuries; opioid sensitive. Usually rapid onset. Two types: visceral and somaticBreakthrough pain: Transitory increase in pain that occurs in addition to persistent pain. It is commonly seen in cancer patients & late-stage diseases such as AIDS. It can be spontaneous and unpredictable or initiated by certain activities, such as walking, sitting, or coughing. It can last for a few minutes or up to 30 minutes or an hour. The episodes may occur even though the person is on a regular analgesic schedule.