L10_Chp7_notes - How Cells Release Chemical Energy-Chapter...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
How Cells Release   Chemical Energy  --- Chapter 7 Producing the Universal Currency of Life  All energy-releasing pathways, require characteristic starting materials, yield predictable  products and by-products and produce ATP  ATP Is Universal Energy Source Photosynthesizers get energy from the sun Animals get energy second- or third-hand from plants or other organisms Regardless, the energy is converted to the chemical bond energy of ATP Making ATP Plants make ATP during photosynthesis Cells of all organisms make ATP by breaking down carbohydrates, fats, and protein Main Types of Energy-Releasing Pathways  Anaerobic pathways -- Evolved first; Don’t require oxygen;   Start with glycolysis in cytoplasm;  Completed in cytoplasm Aerobic pathways  Evolved later; Require oxygen; Start with glycolysis in cytoplasm; Completed in mitochondria Energy-Releasing Pathways Overview of Aerobic Respiration C 6 H 12 0 6      +         6O 2                 6CO 2            +        6H 2 0      glucose       oxygen                    carbon dioxide          water Main Pathways Start with Glycolysis  Glycolysis occurs in cytoplasm Reactions are catalyzed by enzymes
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Glucose     ---------- 2 Pyruvate  (six carbons)             (three carbons) The Role of Coenzymes NAD +  and FAD accept electrons and hydrogen from intermediates during the first two stages When reduced, they are NADH and FADH 2   In the third stage, these coenzymes deliver the electrons and hydrogen to the transfer chain Overview of Aerobic Respiration Glucose   Is a simple sugar   (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Atoms are held together by covalent bonds  Glycolysis Occurs in Two Stages  Energy-requiring steps  ATP energy activates glucose and its six-carbon derivatives Energy-releasing steps  The products of the first part are split into three-carbon pyruvate molecules ATP and NADH form  Energy-Requiring Steps   Energy-Releasing Steps Net Energy Yield from Glycolysis   Energy requiring steps:    2 ATPs are invested or expended Energy releasing steps:    2 NADH   and 4 ATP formed  Net yield is 2 ATP and 2 NADH
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern