session 27 - Social Psychology session #27 Aggression...

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Social Psychology session #27 Aggression * Definition of aggression * Theories of aggression * Person and Situational variables Defining and Operationalizing Aggression * Definition * Infliction of harm or injury on another person or organism intended to hurt or harm them * “Aggression is any form of behavior directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment” * Types of aggressive behavior * Physical vs verbal * Direct vs indirect * Instrumental vs hostile (angry, gratuitous) * Defensive vs offensive * Provoked vs unprovoked Theories of Aggression * Frustration and aggression * Cue arousal theory * Aggression as learned behavior Frustration and Aggression * The frustration-aggression hypothesis (Dollard et al., 1939) * Frustration = blocked goal attainment * Frustration always leads to some form of aggression * Aggression is always a consequence of frustration * The tendency to act aggressively is decreased by showing aggression or its substitutes * Problems for the F-A hypothesis * Aggression is not always directed against the cause of frustration * It can take different forms * If source of frustration is physically strong/high social status * Aggression may be turned to weaker target or ‘scapegoat’ (target substitution) * Aggression may be expressed in more indirect ways (response substitution) * Aggression without frustration; frustration without aggression Revised Frustration-Aggression Theory (Miller et al., 1941) * Frustration seen only as a stimulus to aggression * Aggression seen not as inevitable, but as dominant response tendency * Thus frustration creates a readiness to aggress * Whether aggression is shown depends on additional conditions * Define relation between F and A more precisely: * à Cue arousal theory
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session 27 - Social Psychology session #27 Aggression...

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