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Unformatted text preview: Learn and Share 文勇的新托福黄金精选阅读真题 [2016.01. 22版本] Learn and Share 所有收录的文章都附有精心准备的翻译 祝大家考试顺利! ! 扫描关注刘文勇微信 微信号:liuwenyonglasedu2 文勇直接交流答疑,免费参加托福、SAT、GRE空中课堂; 还有机会免费获得黄金阅读的配套讲解 《新托福真题详解——阅读分卷》 1 乐闻携尔托福SAT:4000-182-178 Learn and Share 版权声明 《文勇的新托福黄金精选阅读真题》,本材料版权归ETS所有。 本材料中得所有内容,包括(但不仅限于)正文、图片、表格和图标,受中 国版权法和其他国际版权法的保护。在任何单机上,您可以免费下载、查看此 材料或打印作为个人使用,材料本身在我司没做任何盈利性的事情,不允许用 于其他任何目的的打印、复印、复制、再加工、分发、传送、上载、下载、存 储和公开演示,不得随意修改和改变这些资料。 严禁利用此资料的全部或部分内容进行任何商业性应用,否则将依法追究法 律责任! 一开始做这件事情的时候,文档之中有不少的typo,还好获得了弟兄们的支持和理解, 这个文档的错误才慢慢的越变越少。很感激大家对这个文档的关心和帮助,这个文档还是会 一直地做下去,为大家提供第一手的托福阅读复习资料。 欢迎同学们发邮件给我指出任何的关于这个文档的【意见】和【建议】 本文檔由刘文勇出于个人兴趣制作,由陈睿、石金娥协助制作,该行为并不代表任何机构; 【注意】 文章源自ETS, 版权啥的自然都来自ETS, 这一点毫无疑问, 由于教务繁忙, 估计各种错误是少不了的, 如果你发现了错误且有空的话, 就拜托你发邮件告诉我一下吧: [email protected] 俺常常收到同学们的邮件,要我推荐各种各样阅读材料,问我iBT的复习资料中 Barron, Longman, Delta等等哪个更好。我其实很无奈——因为尽管这些机构很大牌,但大牌丝毫都不意味着文章“质量 2 乐闻携尔托福SAT:4000-182-178 Learn and Share 高”(比如你可以想想三鹿奶粉)——说这些机构的文章质量不高,并不是说文字写得不好,而是说这些文 章的句子结构, 论述方式, 出题思路与ETS的并不一致(有时候甚至大相径庭):用这样的材料训练,实 在是事倍功半。 于是,我们实在应该去找找由ETS出的iBT文章来做:(我们能够找到的|由ETS编纂的标准iBT 文章有) 1. OG 之中的13篇文章;(其中3篇为第三版OG之中的文章); 2. 35次(套)TPO 之中的3*34=102篇文章(由于TPO2的文章和OG的文章重合); 3. 早期报名之时ETS赠送的3篇在线测试题; 4. ETS官方给出的模考软件之中抽出的1篇文章; 于是这个文档在我的一时兴起之下,出现了: OG拿在手上,可以一个字一个字地敲成电子版;TPO的所有考试都是在自己的计算机进行,于 是可以一边花钱参加考试,一边截图与录像_再利用截下来的图片,逐个敲下来;早期的ETS赠送的3 篇在线测试题,我也恰好有电子版本;官方的模考软件稍微用点功夫,就能将文章提取并复制出来。 虽然工作有些繁杂,但总算完成了所有文章的敲打工作。再花了些时间,把这119篇文章都做了答案, 附在文章的后面。(由于TPO之中有3篇文章与OG中完全重复,于是减去3篇,只剩下119篇。)同 时我还更正了OG上几个明显的错误(详见文后附录)当然,我还做出了方便大家理解文章的参考译 文,附在文章的后面。 在这119篇由ETS出的文章没有做完之前,我们实在不应该花时间在任何其他的题目之上。我有 时候甚至会对着我的弟兄们高呼:“没有把这116篇做3遍,你好意思上考场么?你好意思花钱在任何 一本垃圾书上面么? 另外,如果你正在准备iBT-SAT-GRE的作文部分或者写留学文书,也应该仔细的琢磨一下这些 文章:经过ETS打磨的文章,无一不是精妙绝伦,极具模仿价值。常常有同学拜托我帮她(他)写 PS,也说起自己的句子怎么看都像是小学生写的(尽管用上了GRE里面的单词),于是会随口问我 “勇哥,您的写作能力是怎么训练出来的。”我说,“看呗,看呗:托福文章看多了,写作能力自然就 提高了。” “这ETS的这些文章真的那么好?”每当听到这个问题,我都会装做赵本山的样子来一句“谁用谁知 道~~” 文勇 (欢迎进行未删节的转载|且不必告诉我你转载到哪里去|都是一个战壕里面的弟兄啊…) 3 乐闻携尔托福SAT:4000-182-178 Learn and Share 目录 OG Applied Arts and Fine Arts 参考译⽂文:实⽤用艺术和纯艺术 The Origins of Cetaceans 参考译⽂文:鲸类的起源 Desert Formation 参考译⽂文:沙漠的形成 Early Cinema 参考译⽂文:早期影院 Aggression 参考译⽂文:侵略略性⾏行行为 Artisans and Industrialization 参考译⽂文:⼯工匠和⼯工业化 Swimming Machines 参考译⽂文:游泳机器器 Nineteenth-Century Politics in the United States 参考译⽂文:⼗十九世纪美国政治 The Expression of Emotions 参考译⽂文:情感的表达 Geology and Landscape TPO-1 Groundwater 参考译⽂文:地下⽔水 The Origins of Theater 参考译⽂文:戏剧的起源 Timberline Vegetation on Mountains 参考译⽂文:⼭山上树带界线的植被 TPO-3 Architecture 参考译⽂文:建筑 Depletion of the Ogallala Aquifer 参考译⽂文:奥加拉拉蓄⽔水层的枯竭 The Long-Term Stability of Ecosystems 参考译⽂文:⽣生态系统的⻓长期稳定 Online Test Opportunists and Competitors 参考译⽂文:机会主义者和竞争者 Lascaux Cave Paintings 参考译⽂文:拉斯科岩洞洞画 Electricity from Wind 参考译⽂文:⻛风⼒力力发电 TPO-4 Deer Populations of the Puget Sound 参考译⽂文:普吉特海海湾的⿅鹿群 Cave Art in Europe 参考译⽂文:欧洲的岩洞洞艺术 Petroleum Resources 参考译⽂文:⽯石油资源 9 9 15 17 23 25 31 31 37 39 46 46 52 53 59 61 67 68 75 76 82 82 87 88 92 94 99 100 100 105 106 111 112 117 118 118 122 123 128 129 134 135 135 140 142 146 148 153 4 乐闻携尔托福SAT:4000-182-178 Learn and Share Official Model Exam Meteorite Impact and Dinosaur Extinction 参考译⽂文:陨⽯石撞击和恐⻰龙的灭绝 TPO-5 Minerals and Plants 参考译⽂文:矿物质和植物 The Origin of the Pacific Island People 参考译⽂文:太平洋群岛居⺠民的起源 The Cambrian Explosion 参考译⽂文:寒武纪⼤大爆发 TPO-6 Powering the Industrial Revolution 参考译⽂文:驱动⼯工业⾰革命 William Smith 参考译⽂文:威廉·史密斯 Infantile Amnesia 参考译⽂文:婴幼⼉儿期记忆缺失 TPO-7 The Geologic History of the Mediterranean 参考译⽂文:地中海海的地质历史 Ancient Rome and Greece 参考译⽂文:古代罗⻢马和希腊 Agriculture, Iron, and the Bantu Peoples 参考译⽂文:农业、铁器器和班图⼈人 TPO-8 The Rise of Teotihuacán 参考译⽂文:特奥蒂瓦坎的崛起 Extinction of the Dinosaurs 参考译⽂文:恐⻰龙的灭绝 Running Water on Mars 参考译⽂文:⽕火星上的流⽔水 TPO-9 Colonizing the Americas via the Northwest Coast 参考译⽂文:美国⻄西北北海海岸的移⺠民 Reflection in Teaching 参考译⽂文:教学中的反思 The Arrival of Plant Life in Hawaii 参考译⽂文:夏威夷植物的到来 OG Test 2 Feeding Habits of East African Herbivores 参考译⽂文:东⾮非草⻝⾷食动物的饮⻝⾷食 Loie Fuller 参考译⽂文:Loie Fuller Green Icebergs 参考译⽂文:绿⾊色冰⼭山 TPO-10 Chinese Pottery 参考译⽂文:中国的陶瓷 Variations in the Climate 参考译⽂文:⽓气候变化 5 154 154 159 160 160 165 166 170 172 177 178 178 183 184 189 190 195 196 196 201 202 207 208 213 214 214 219 220 226 228 233 234 234 240 242 247 248 253 254 254 259 260 265 266 272 273 273 278 279 285 乐闻携尔托福SAT:4000-182-178 Learn and Share Seventeenth-Century European Economic Growth 参考译⽂文:17世纪的欧洲经济增⻓长 TPO-11 Ancient Egyptian Sculpture 参考译⽂文:古埃及雕塑 Orientation and Navigation 参考译⽂文:定位和导航 Begging by Nestlings 参考译⽂文:雏⻦鸟的乞⻝⾷食⾏行行为 TPO-12 Which Hand Did They Use? 参考译⽂文:他们到底⽤用哪只⼿手? Transition to Sound in Film 参考译⽂文:电影声⾳音的演变 Water in the Desert 参考译⽂文:沙漠中的⽔水源 TPO-13 Types of Social Groups 参考译⽂文:社会群组的类型 Biological Clocks 参考译⽂文:⽣生物钟 Methods of Studying Infant Perception 参考译⽂文:研究婴⼉儿感知能⼒力力的⽅方法 TPO-14 Children and Advertising 参考译⽂文:⼉儿童和⼴广告 Maya Water Problems 参考译⽂文:玛雅的⽔水源问题 Pastoralism in Ancient Inner Eurasia 参考译⽂文:古代内欧的畜牧 TPO-15 A Warm-Blooded Turtle 参考译⽂文:温⾎血海海⻳龟 Mass Extinctions 参考译⽂文:⼤大规模物种灭绝 Glacier Formation 参考译⽂文:冰川的形成 TPO-16 Trade and the Ancient Middle East 参考译⽂文:古代中东与贸易易 Development of the Periodic Table 参考译⽂文:元素周期表的演进 Planets in Our Solar System 参考译⽂文:太阳系中的⾏行行星 TPO-17 Europe's Early Sea Trade with Asia 参考译⽂文:欧亚地区早期的海海洋贸易易 Animal Signals in the Rain Forest 参考译⽂文:⾬雨林林中的动物信号 Symbiotic Relationships 6 286 292 293 293 298 299 305 306 312 313 313 318 319 325 326 331 332 332 337 338 343 344 350 351 351 357 358 363 364 369 370 370 375 376 381 382 387 388 388 394 395 401 402 407 408 408 414 415 420 421 乐闻携尔托福SAT:4000-182-178 Learn and Share 参考译⽂文:共⽣生关系 TPO-18 Industrialization in the Netherlands and Scandinavia 参考译⽂文:荷兰和斯堪的纳维亚半岛的⼯工业化进程 The mystery of yawning 参考译⽂文:打哈⽋欠的奥秘 Lightning 参考译⽂文:闪电 TPO-19 The Roman Army's Impact on Britain 参考译⽂文:罗⻢马军队对不不列列颠的影响 Succession, Climax, and Ecosystems 参考译⽂文:演替、顶级群落与⽣生态系统 Discovering the Ice Ages 参考译⽂文:发现冰河时代 TPO-20 Westward Migration 参考译⽂文:移居⻄西部 Early Settlements in the Southwest Asia 参考译⽂文:⻄西南亚的早期定居点 Fossil Preservation 参考译⽂文:化⽯石保存 TPO-21 Geothermal Energy 参考译⽂文:地热能 The Origins of Agriculture 参考译⽂文:农业的起源 Autobiographical Memory 参考译⽂文:⾃自传式记忆 TPO-22 Spartina 参考译⽂文:⽶米草属植物 The Birth of Photography 参考⽂文献:摄影术的诞⽣生 The Allende Meteorite 参考译⽂文:阿伦德陨星 TPO-23 Urban Climates 参考译⽂文:城市⽓气候 Seventeenth-Century Dutch Agriculture 参考译⽂文:⼗十七世纪的荷兰农业 Rock Art of the Australia Aborigines 参考译⽂文:澳⼤大利利亚⼟土著的岩⽯石艺术 TPO-24 Lake Water 参考译⽂文:湖中的⽔水 Breathing During Sleep 参考译⽂文:睡眠中的呼吸 Moving into Pueblos 参考译⽂文:迁⼊入普⻙韦布洛洛 7 426 427 427 433 434 440 441 446 447 447 453 454 459 460 465 466 466 471 472 477 478 483 484 484 489 490 495 496 501 502 502 507 508 513 514 520 521 521 527 528 533 534 539 540 540 546 547 553 554 560 乐闻携尔托福SAT:4000-182-178 Learn and Share TPO-25 The surface of Mars 参考译⽂文:⽕火星表⾯面 The Decline of Venetian Shipping 参考译⽂文威尼斯航运的衰落 The Evolutionary Origin of Plants 参考译⽂文:植物的进化起源 TPO-26 Energy and the Industrial Revolution 参考译⽂文:能源与⼯工业⾰革命 Survival of Plants and Animals in Desert Conditions 沙漠环境中动植物的求⽣生策略略 Sumer and the First Cities of the Ancient Near East 苏美尔与古代近东的第⼀一个城邦 TPO-27 Crafts in the Ancient Near East 参考译⽂文:古代近东的⼯工匠 The Formation of Volcanic Islands 参考译⽂文:⽕火⼭山岛的形成 Predator-Prey Cycles 参考译⽂文:捕⻝⾷食者-被捕⻝⾷食者循环 TPO-28 Groundwater 参考译⽂文:地下⽔水 Early Saharan Pastoralists 参考译⽂文:早期撒哈拉的⽥田园画家 Buck Rubs and Buck Scrapes 参考译⽂文:雄⿅鹿擦痕与雄⿅鹿窝 TPO-29 Characteristics of Roman Pottery 参考译⽂文:古罗⻢马陶器器的特征 Competition 参考译⽂文:竞争 The History of Waterpower 参考译⽂文:⽔水⼒力力的历史 TPO-30 Role of Play in Development 参考译⽂文:玩耍在发育中的⻆角⾊色 The Pace of Evolutionary Change 参考译⽂文:进化的速度 The Invention of the Mechanical Clock 参考译⽂文:机械钟的发明 TPO-31 Speciation in Geographically Isolated Populations 参考译⽂文:地理理隔离导致物种形成 Early Childhood Education 参考译⽂文:学前教育 Savanna Formation 1.○3 2.○2 8 561 561 566 567 573 574 580 581 581 587 588 594 595 600 601 601 606 607 612 613 618 619 619 625 626 631 632 637 638 638 643 644 649 650 655 657 657 662 663 668 669 674 675 675 680 681 686 687 691 691 乐闻携尔托福SAT:4000-182-178 Learn and Share 3.○4 4.○2 5.○1 6.○3 7.○1 8.○4 9.○2 10.○4 11.○3 12.○1 13.○3 14. Soil stress caused by drought, extreme moisture… Frequent fire is a major factor contributing… In some areas, human cutting and… 参考译⽂文:稀树草原的形成 TPO-32 Plant Colonization 植物定居 Siam, 1851 – 1910 暹罗, 1851-1910 Distributions of Tropical Bee Colonies 热带蜂群的分布 TPO-33 The First Civilizations 最早的⽂文明 Railroads and Commercial Agriculture in Nineteenth-Century United States ⼗十九世纪美国的铁路路和商品农业 Extinction Episodes of the Past 过去的灭绝事件 TPO-34 Islamic Art and the Book 伊斯兰艺术和书籍 The Development of Steam Power 蒸汽机的发展 Protection of Plants by Insects 昆⾍虫对植物的保护 TPO-35 Europe in the twelfth century Population and climate What is a community? 附录: 乐闻托福提分课程 691 691 691 691 691 691 691 691 691 691 691 691 691 691 692 693 693 697 699 704 705 710 711 711 716 717 717 722 723 728 729 729 734 734 740 741 745 746 746 751 755 760 767 OG Applied Arts and Fine Arts Although we now tend to refer to the various crafts according to the materials used to construct them—clay, glass, wood, fiber, and metal—it was once common to think of crafts in terms of function, which led to their being known as the "applied arts." Approaching crafts from the point of view of function, we can divide them into simple categories: 9 乐闻携尔托福SAT:4000-182-178 Learn and Share containers, shelters and supports. There is no way around the fact that containers, shelters, and supports must be functional. The applied arts are thus bound by the laws of physics, which pertain to both the materials used in their making and the substances and things to be contained, supported, and sheltered. These laws are universal in their application, regardless of cultural beliefs, geography, or climate. If a pot has no bottom or has large openings in its sides, it could hardly be considered a container in any traditional sense. Since the laws of physics, not some arbitrary decision, have determined the general form of applied-art objects, they follow basic patterns, so much so that functional forms can vary only within certain limits. Buildings without roofs, for example, are unusual because they depart from the norm. However, not all functional objects are exactly alike; that is why we recognize a Shang Dynasty vase as being different from an Inca vase. What varies is not the basic form but the incidental details that do not obstruct the object's primary function. Sensitivity to physical laws is thus an important consideration for the maker of applied-art objects. It is often taken for granted that this is also true for the maker of fine-art objects. This assumption misses a significant difference between the two disciplines. Fine-art objects are not constrained by the laws of physics in the same way that applied-art objects are. Because their primary purpose is not functional, they are only limited in terms of the materials used to make them. Sculptures must, for example, be stable, which requires an understanding of the properties of mass, weight distribution, and stress. Paintings must have rigid stretchers so that the canvas will be taut, and the paint must not deteriorate, crack, or discolor. These are problems that must be overcome by the artist because they tend to intrude upon his or her conception of the work. For example, in the early Italian Renaissance, bronze statues of horses with a raised foreleg usually had a cannonball under that hoof. This was done because the cannonball was needed to support the weight of the leg. In other words, the demands of the laws of physics, not the sculptor's aesthetic intentions, placed the ball there. That this device was a necessary structural compromise is clear from the fact that the cannonball quickly disappeared when sculptors learned how to strengthen the internal structure of a statue with iron braces (iron being much stronger than bronze). Even though the fine arts in the twentieth century often treat materials in new ways, the basic difference in attitude of artists in relation to their materials in the fine arts and the applied arts remains relatively constant. It would therefore not be too great an exaggeration to say that practitioners of the fine arts work to overcome the limitations of their materials, whereas those engaged in the applied arts work in concert with their materials. 【Paragraph 1】 Although we now tend to refer to the various crafts according to the materials used to construct them —clay, glass, wood, fiber, and metal—it was once common to think of crafts in terms of function, which led to their being known as the "applied arts." Approaching crafts from the point of view of function, we can divide them into simple categories: containers, shelters and supports. There is no way around the fact that containers, shelters, and supports must be functional. The applied arts are thus bound by the laws of physics, which pertain to both the materials used in their making and the substances and things to be contained, supported, and sheltered. These laws are universal in their application, regardless of cultural beliefs, geography, or climate. If a pot has no bottom or has large openings in its sides, it could hardly be considered a container in any traditional sense. Since the laws of physics, not some arbitrary decision, have determined the general form of applied-art objects,they follow basic patterns, so much so that functional forms can vary only within certain limits. Buildings without roofs, for example, are unusual because they depart from the norm. However, not all functional objects are exactly alike; that is why we recognize a Shang Dynasty vase as being different from an Inca vase. What varies is not the basic form but the incidental details that do not obstruct the object's primary function. 1. The word “they”in the passage refers to ○applied-art objects ○the laws of physics ○containers ○the sides of pots 10 乐闻携尔托福SAT:4000-182-178 Learn and Share 2. Which of the following best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence? Incorrect answer choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. ○Functional applied-art objects cannot vary much from the basic patterns determined by the laws of physics. ○The function of applied-art objects is determined by basic patterns in the laws of physics. ○Since functional applied-art objects vary only within certain limits, arbitrary decisions cannot have determined their general form. ○The general form of applied-art objects is limited by some arbitrary decision that is not determined by the laws of physics. 【Paragraph 2】Sensitivity to physical laws is thus an important consideration for the maker of applied-art objects. It is often taken for granted that this is also true for the maker of fine-art objects. This assumption misses a significant difference between the two disciplines. Fine-art objects are not constrained by the laws of physics in the same way that applied-art objects are. Because their primary purpose is not functional, they are only limited in terms of the materials used to make them. Sculptures must, for example, be stable, which requires an understanding of the properties of mass, weight distribution, and stress. Paintings must have rigid stretchers so that the canvas will be taut, and the paint must not deteriorate, crack, or discolor. These are problems that must be overcome by the artist because they tend to intrude upon his or her conception of the work. For example, in the early Italian Renaissance, bronze statues of horses with a raised foreleg usually had a cannonball under that hoof. This was done because the cannonball was needed to support the weight of the leg. In other words, the demands of the laws of physics, not the sculptor's aesthetic intentions, placed the ball there. That this device was a necessary structural compromise is clear from the fact that the cannonball quickly disappeared when sculptors learned how to strengthen the internal structure of a statue with iron braces (iron being much stronger than bronze). 3. According to paragraph 2, sculptors in the Italian Renaissance stopped using cannonballs in bronze statues of horses because ○they began using a material that made the statues weigh less ○they found a way to strengthen the statues internally ○the aesthetic tastes of the public had changed over time ○the cannonballs added too much weight to the statues 4. Why does the author discuss the bronze statues of horses created by artists in the early Italian Renaissance? ○To provide an example of a problem related to the laws of physics that a fine artist must overcome ○To argue that fine artists are unconcerned with the laws of physics ○To contrast the relative sophistication of modern artists in solving problems related to the laws of physics ○To note an exceptional piece of art constructed without the aid of technology 5. An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points. This passage discusses fundamental differences between applied-art objects and fine-art objects. ● ● ● Answer Choices 11 乐闻携尔托福SAT:4000-182-178 Learn and Share ○Applied-art objects fulfill functions, such as containing or sheltering, and objects with the same function have similar characteristics because they are constrained by their purpose. ○It is easy to recognize that Shang Dynasty vases are different from Inca vases. ○Fine-art objects are not functional, so they are limited only by the properties of the materials used. ○Renaissance sculptors learned to use iron braces to strengthen the internal structures of bronze statues. ○In the twentieth century, fine artists and applied artists became more similar to one another in their attitudes toward their materials. ○In all periods, fine artists tend to challenge the physical limitations of their materials while applied artists tend to cooperate with the physical properties of their materials. 6. 【Directions】Complete the table below to summarize information about the two types of art discussed in the passage. Match the appropriate statements to the types of art with which they are associated. This question is worth 3 points. TYPES OF ART STATEMENTS The Applied Arts The Fine Arts ● ● ● ● ● Statements ○An object's purpose is primarily aesthetic. ○Objects serve a functional purpose. ○The incidental details of objects do not vary. ○Artists work to overcome the limitations of their materials. ○The basic form of objects varies little across cultures. ○Artists work in concert with their materials. ○An object's place of origin is difficult to determine. 12 乐闻携尔托福SAT:4000-182-178 Learn and Share 参考答案: 1. ○1 This is an example of a simple pronoun-referent item. The highlighted word they refers to the phrase “applied-art objects,”which immediately precedes it, so choice 1 is the correct answer. Often the grammatical referent for a pronoun will be separated from the pronoun. It may be located in a preceding clause or even in the preceding sentence. 2. ○1 It is important to note that the question says that incorrect answers change the original meaning of the sentence or leave out essential information. In this example, choice 4 changes the meaning of the sentence to its opposite; it says that the form of functional objects is arbitrary, when the highlighted sentence says that the forms of functional objects are never arbitrary. Choice 2 also changes the meaning. It says that the functions of applied-art objects are determined by physical laws. The highlighted sentence says that the form of the object is determined by physical laws but the function is determined by people. Choice 3 leaves out an important idea from the highlighted sentence. Like the highlighted sentence, it says that the form of functional objects is not arbitrary, but it does not say that it is physical laws that determine basic form. Only choice 1 make...
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