section 6 nov 2.pdf - The scientific method A scientific...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–7. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
The scientific method A scientific theory 1. makes testable ( falsifiable ) predictions 2. The predictions are operationalized (stated re the measurements that will actually be made in the study) 3. and empirically tested. 4. The predictions are supported or rejected by the empirical test. 5. The theory is then either kept as is or modified 6. In rare cases, a persistent discrepancy between theory and empirical result is maintained as an anomaly
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
if no observation is capable of falsifying (not supporting it empirically) a prediction from a theory, then that theory is not scientific Karl Popper
Image of page 2
1. normally, a prediction is first made from a theory 2. experimental tests are then devised and conducted after the prediction, based on an operational measure of the phenomenon we are interested in 3. interpretation of the results should then be independent of the theory; one cannot choose among several results the ones that support the theory 4. if the results consistently do not support the predictions of the theory, and there is evidence that the observations have been correctly done, the theory is normally modified or replaced . The Golem looks at 3 cases where this normal sequence has not been respected.
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
The Eddington observations may not have been interpreted independently of the theory (violates #3); conclusions appear to have been reached on the basis of authority rather than quality of the results The Michelson-Morley experiment was reinterpreted post hoc, not specifically devised to test the theory after the prediction is made (violates #2) The solar neutrino anomaly did not lead to rejection of standard stellar evolution theory even though results did not fit the prediction (violates #4)
Image of page 4
Einstein and Eddington
Image of page 5

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Theory: relativity Hypothesis: gravitational field should have stronger effect on light than under preceding theory Operationalization: difference in displacement of light coming from stars when they pass or not in gravitational field of the sun
Image of page 6
Image of page 7
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern