CHEM 1211 - Quality Control for the Athenium Baking Soda Company (Lab Report)

CHEM 1211 - Quality Control for the Athenium Baking Soda Company (Lab Report)

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Quality Control for the Athenium Baking Soda Company Beverly Bowen, Meghan Caylor, Michael Crawford, Luke Lee November 28, 2007
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Introduction Useful in many aspects of life, baking soda (also known as sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO 3 ) is a common compound that we encounter everyday, whether we use it as a food freshener or a household cleaner. In producing it, the Athenium Baking Soda Company has elected to utilize the following reaction of ammonium bicarbonate and a brine, sodium chloride: NH 4 HCO 3(s) + NaCl (aq) → NaHCO 3(aq) + NH 4 Cl (aq) However, while the brine mainly consists of sodium chloride, it also contains trace amounts of potassium chloride, lithium chloride, and calcium chloride. Thus, when the aqueous baking soda is dried to form the desired, solid product, the residue of the latter three compounds may be present. Therefore, in order to ensure quality control for the Athenium Baking Soda Company's product, we will elect three methods of experimentation to determine the purity of its baking soda as well as its composition. The first experimental procedure will be a thermal gravimetric analysis that will help determine the percent composition of sodium bicarbonate of a sample of the company's baking soda. In this experiment, a known mass of a sample of the company-produced baking soda mixture will be added to a crucible and heated until it decomposes into solid sodium carbonate, gaseous carbon dioxide and gaseous water, as shown in the following equation: 2NaHCO 3(s) → Na 2 CO 3(s) + CO 2(g) + H 2 O (g) Then, after a reheating of the crucible to ensure accuracy, the stoichiometric ratio for the mass loss of CO 2 and H 2 O per gram of NaHCO 3 as well as the total mass of CO 2 and H 2 O lost upon heating will be determined and used in order to determine the mass of NaHCO 3 present in the sample. Finally, using that data, the percent by mass of NaHCO 3 in the sample will be calculated so that it may be used as indicator of whether or not other contaminants were present in the sample. If the percent by mass of NaHCO 3 is not 100% or extremely close, then there is a presence of contaminants in the baking soda
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mixture. The second experimental procedure will be a titration of a solution containing a sample of the company-produced baking soda sample that will also aid in determining the percent by mass of sodium bicarbonate in the sample. As a second method of determining the percent by mass of NaHCO 3 in the sample in order to provide accuracy, this experiment will first involve the standardization of hydrochloric acid. This is exemplified by the equation: Na 2 CO 3 + 2HCl → NaCl + CO 2 + H 2 O Once standardized, this solution will be used to titrate an aqueous solution of the baking soda (NaHCO 3 ) that is to be prepared from the solid sample produced by the company. This is exemplified by the equation: NaHCO 3 + HCl → NaCl + CO 2 + H 2 O Then, upon the completion of the titration, the equivalence point and the amount of hydrochloric acid
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This note was uploaded on 03/20/2008 for the course CHEM 1211L taught by Professor Stanton during the Fall '08 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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CHEM 1211 - Quality Control for the Athenium Baking Soda Company (Lab Report)

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