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1. Review of Circuit Theory Concepts ECE 65, Winter 2013, F. Najmabadi Lecture notes: Section 1
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Circuit Theory is an Approximation to Maxwell’s Electromagnetic Equations F. Najmabadi, ECE 65, Winter2013, Intro (2/15) A circuit is made of a bunch of “elements” connected with “ideal (i.e., no resistance) wires”. Circuit Theory is an Approximation to Maxwell’s Electromagnetic Equations by assuming o Speed of light is infinite (or dimension of the circuit is much smaller than wave-length of voltage/current waveforms). o Electric and magnetic fields are confined within each element: 1) Internal of an element manifests itself as an iv characteristic eq. 2) Elements communicates with each other only through the wires ! Since the rest of the circuit only sees the iv characteristics of an element, different physical elements with similar iv characteristics are identical!
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Linear circuits have many desirable properties F. Najmabadi, ECE 65, Winter2013, Intro (3/15) A linear circuit element has a linear iv characteristic equation, Av + B i + C = 0 (either in time or frequency domain) If all elements in a circuit are linear, the circuit would be linear and has many desirable properties (e.g., proportionality and superposition) which are essential for many functional circuits. Circuit theory has “symbols” for ideal linear elements : o Five “two-terminal elements”: resistors, capacitors, inductors, independent voltage and independent current sources o Four “four-terminal elements”: controlled voltage and current sources.
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