Research PolicyVolume 42, Issue 8, September 20131. Title:The Spill-Over Theory Reversed: The Impact of Regional Economies on theCommercialization of University Science Authors:Steven Casper Abstract:The concept of regional technology spill-overs created by university researchis one of the most enduring theories within the economic geography and innovationmanagement fields. This article introduces an alternative perspective on academiccommercialization, arguing that the quality of a university's regional environment cansignificantly impact a university's success in commercializing science. Recent researchon university technology transfer stresses the importance of personal contacts betweenacademic and industry scientists in driving commercialization. The social structure of theregional economy in which a university is embedded will strongly influence the density ofcontacts linking university scientists with individuals in industry, and through doing so,impact the density of networks through which university knowledge can becommercialized. Social network analysis is used to examine the quality of social tieslinking industry and university scientists within the San Francisco and Los AngelesCalifornia biotechnology industries over the 1980–2005 period. Results support thetheory that the existence of strong social networks linking inventors heightens universitycommercialization output. Despite similar university research endowments, universities inSan Francisco have dramatically commercialization outputs than San Francisco, which iscorrelated with the existence of cohesive inventor networks linking industry and universityscientists in this region, but not Los Angeles. Moreover, longitudinal analysis shows thatthe commercialization output of San Francisco universities increased substantiallystarting in the early 1990s, the time period in which cohesive inventor networks emergedin the region.2. Title:From Closed To Open: Job Role Changes, Individual Predispositions, andthe Adoption of Commercial Open Source Software Development Authors:Oliver Alexy, Joachim Henkel, Martin W. Wallin Abstract:When trying to attain the benefits of open source software (OSS), proprietaryclosed source software (PCSS) firms are struggling to adopt this radically differentpractice of software development. We approach these adoption challenges as a problemof gaining support for organizational innovation. Through a mixed-method researchdesign consisting of qualitative interviews and a survey of employees of a largetelecommunications firm, we find that the organizational innovation to commerciallyengage in OSS has different impacts on technical and administrative dimensions ofdifferent job roles. Accordingly, individuals enacting different job roles are—on average—more or less well aligned with the OSS practice and OSS processes per se. We find thatindividual-level attributes can counterbalance the job role changes that weaken supportfor adopting OSS, while perceived organizational commitment has no effect. Suggestions
for PCSS firms are presented and implications for innovation literature are discussed.