QuickTime™ and aTIFF (LZW) decompressorare needed to see this picture.THELASTAFRICANCOLONYA look at the History and Modern Day Conflict of Morocco and Western SaharaMariana Beardsworth Maria KredlowJune 1, 2005
QuickTime™ and aTIFF (LZW) decompressorare needed to see this picture.THELASTAFRICANCOLONYTABLEOFCONTENTS1. Introduction (p.1)Why This Region?2. Western Sahara History (p.2-12)Before ColonizationArrival of ArabsGeography and PeopleSpanish ColonizationStruggle for Independence3. Moroccan History (p.12-19)Origins – The Early YearsReligion and the Flourish of CultureProsperityColonialismIndependence4. A Bitter Battle (p.19-25)UN MINURSO Mission5. Moroccan Relations (p.25-30)Relations with the United StatesRelations with the European UnionInterview with Ambassador Riley6. Recognizing Western Sahara (p.30-32)7. Oil and Western Sahara’s Future (p.32-36)Kerr-McGee and TotalFinaElfPOLISARIO and UN ResistanceWestern Sahara Resource WatchImportance of Oil for SaharawiThe United States’ Role8. Conclusion (p.37-38)Works Cited
INTRODUCTIONWestern Sahara remains the last African colony. Over the course of history, many groups have attempted to control the region of North Africa at the gateway of the Mediterranean known as Morocco and Western Sahara. Today, Morocco exists as an independent country, but it still struggles to control its neighbor, Western Sahara. The Saharawi people of Western Sahara long for freedom, but history has proved it difficult in the past, and global and economic ties of the present reveal a grim future for the land. This paper will explore the histories of the two regions separately and together, and then explore the economic ties of the present to show why independence is proving so difficult for Western Sahara.Why this region?Why have Morocco and the Western Sahara historically been such desirable locations? They have both been conquered by and resisted many empires. Many factors have played in role in the region’s desirability throughout the ages. Morocco was initially controlled because of its excellent location on theMediterranean. It also provided olives and grain. There was also evidence of wine making and fishing, as well as the export of lead, silver, copper, and iron. In later years, Morocco still proved to be a highly strategic location for a military base. Furthermore, in Western Sahara, the deposits of phosphates, gas
and oil and uranium are very tempting to energy-starved Morocco, as well as to other large and ambitious oil companies.