BIOL 4805 Exam 3.docx - BIOL Fishes Exam 3 Great Lakes HOMES Huron Ontario Michigan Erie Superior Bathymetry refers to the depth of the water Laker Erie

BIOL 4805 Exam 3.docx - BIOL Fishes Exam 3 Great Lakes...

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BIOL Fishes Exam 3 Great Lakes “HOMES” Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior Bathymetry - refers to the depth of the water Laker Erie a very shallow lake Speciation - not much in the past 10,000 years African Cichlids - most speciose group known on earth. Species Flock Lake Victoria - massive amount of species. Pollution, overfishing decreased speciation. Nile Perch was introduced and the population of Cichlids fell off dramatically. Atlantic Salmon - first fish lost in the Great Lakes due to human activity, overfishing Natural Migration Pattern Barriers - In the US mountain ranges run from North to South, as opposed to Europe where they run East to West. In the us this did not cut off species migration due to glaciation as it did on the European continent. Migration - anywhere from geographic time and space to fish lifetime or season. Pleistocene Period - advances of ice sheets, glaciers and movement caused a great deal of changes and migration. Glaciers - glaciated/unglaciated, complex and dynamic magins at the edges. Ohio - was glaciated Refugia - a location which supports an isolated or relict population of a once more widespread species. An area in which a population of organisms can survive through a period of unfavorable conditions, especially glaciation. Glacial melting causes water masses to become connected allowing migration. Connections outside of the Great Lakes, disappeared over time Mississippi Refugium - 80-90% of fish from Mississippi River drainage. Warm water taxa Connections from glacial refugium caused diversity that shouldn't be there. Gars, Sturgeons, ancient lineages that were present there Centrarchids, Perchids, Cyprinids Atlantic Refugium - migration to Lake Ontario Sea Lamprey to Lake Ontario Alewife, Herring Atlantic Salmon - from Atlantic seaboard migration 1st species lost from Great Lakes due to human activity Landlocked in Ontario because of blocked spawning migrations via mill dams Arctic Refugium - Cold water taxa Lake Trout Human Mediated Migration Pattern 3 Methods - Ballast Water Navigation Canals Fish Stocking Ballast Water Invasions - Human induced invasions Most invasive species are bad for the ecosystem Ships can carry invasive species in their ballast water Ballast Water - used to change buoyancy of ship, picked up invasive species of fish Eurasian Rulf - invaded Lake Superior via ballast water 1
BIOL Fishes Exam 3 Round Goby - invaded Great Lakes via ballast water. Not aggressive until they invaded the Great Lakes where they thrived.

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