Mod 6.docx - Cortisol Glucocorticoid steroid hormone...

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Cortisol:“Glucocorticoid” steroid hormone; produced in adrenal cortexDiurnal:“circadian hormone”oCycles Inc in morning Decreases as the day goes onoGluconeogenesisInsulinOscillationsoConstant level of secretionInc or dec depending on amt of carbs in bloodoStimulated by pacemaker cells in pancreas CalcitoninInc calcium in blood leads to inc in calcitoninoResponds to an altered level of a given substrateNegative feedback- self regulationoLow levels stim release of one signal which releases the otherHypothalamus oSenses thyroid hormonein bloodLow levels of thyroid hormone stim release of thyrotropin releasing hormoneTRAVELS to ant pit glandbinds to receptorsoStim to release thyroid stim hormoneBinds to thyroid TSH receptorsReleases T3/T4oBind to hypothalamus, turns off mechanismPositive feedback“Ferguson reflex”oPressure on cervix/uterus stim oxytocin to be releasedLoss of pressure = loss of oxytocin How hormones travel and worktwo waysoBind to serum proteinsEg) testosteroneoWater solubleMore available to interact with receptorsPituitary gland
Small like a peaoProtrudes off hypothalamusProlactin, TSH, growth hormone, Adrenicorticotropic hormonePathology of pituitary gland/soPit adenomaBenign, non-cancer tumor typicallyFound “incidentally”Micro-adenomaLess than 10mmTypically asymptomaticoCan secrete hormonesMacro adenoma 0.1% larger than 10mmoDiagnosis: Physical exam via CT scanMRICareful history/exam over secretion of a hormoneoTreatmentDepends on whether it is macro/microSurgery/radiation possiblyBromocriptineD2 agonistShrinks tumoreOctreotideInterrupts feedback look produced in over secretion of hormonesHemianopsia Loss of visual fieldApoplexy Acute hemorrhage oNecrosis of tumor Leads to visual changes and headachesAcromegalyOver secretion of growth hormoneVery large peopleExpansion of skull and browGrowth of internal organsCushings syndromeOver secretion of cortisolPosterior pito2 prominent kinds:
SIADH(syndrome of Inappropriate release of ADH)Over secretion/inc levels of ADHoConstant secretion of ADHo2ndary to carcinomaOccurs in or out of Post. PitCan be caused by infectionEncephalitis MeningitisTBCan be caused by traumaHead injurySub arachnoid hemorrhage Medication causeSSRIsNSAIDsPathoOver secretion of ADHoEither by pit or a tumor

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