GEOL 210 Final study guide 12-2016.docx - Geol 210...

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Geol 210: Earthquakes: Study Guide for Final Exam, Fall 2016 Week 6: How often does a fault produce earthquakes? What is the probability of an M6.7 or larger earthquake in California in the next 30 years? (Same question for M7.0, M7.5 and M8.0). 6.7More than 99% 7 94% 7.5 46% 8 4% How do we determine how often a particular fault produces earthquakes? Measuring fault slip rate from offset landforms. The faster a fault has slipped over the past several thousand years, the more likely we are to have an earthquake on that fault What is paleoseismology? Paleoseismology: The study of prehistoric earthquakes. Young sediments record the occurrence of prehistoric earthquakes What is does the term “recurrence interval” mean? recurrence interval = slip per earthquake /slip rate The interval between major earthquakes on a fault. Be able to interpret a paleoseismic trench log so as to determine the number of earthquakes represented and the positions and ages of the prehistoric earthquakes in the trench (as in the in-class exercise and in homework 6). Explain two different types of evidence that indicate that the recurrence interval for large earthquakes on the San Andreas fault in the San Bernardino area is ~150-160 years. recurrence interval = slip per earthquake /slip rate=4000mm/25mm/yr=160years. Recurrence interval (RI) = 150 years Distance = rate x time 4 meters = 25 mm/yr x RI RI = 160 years What is the probability that a M6.7 or larger earthquake will happen on the southern San Andreas fault within the next 30 years? On the San Jacinto fault? Anywhere in California? When was the most recent surface-rupturing earthquake on the part of the fault behind our campus? Week 8: How big will “the big one” be and how strong will the shaking be? Once we discover an active fault, how do we know how big an earthquake it can produce? By the size of the fault, the longer the more likely.
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Be able to recognize, to use and to explain the meaning of the diagram that we use to estimate what magnitude earthquake a fault is capable of producing.
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