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Unformatted text preview: Nutrition
Lifetime Fitness Lesson 6 Which of the following fast food item has the least amount of calories? Arby's Roast Beef Sandwich 350 850 Taco Bell Taco Salad 880 Dairy Queen Malt 570 McDonald's Big Mac Burger King Double Whooper 101 0 Which of the foods below has the most fat? Blueberry muffin 5 grams 33 Granola Cereal grams Chocolate Chip Cookie 3 grams 15 Three eggs grams Which drink has the most calories? Vodka Red Bull Gatorade, Energy Starbucks, Cappuccino Beer, Heineken Dark 130 160 360 73 175 Basic Principles of Nutrition Diet refers to food selection Nutrients serve three major roles Growth, repair and maintenance of all body cells Regulation of body processes Supply of energy for cells Some nutrients can be made by the body Essential nutrients Must be supplied by an individual's diet 3 Essential nutrients:
Carbohydrates Fats Protein Regulator (Micronutrients) nutrients: Minerals Vitamins Water With a consistently low quality diet an individual runs the risk of developing a nutritional deficiency Overnutrition Eating too much food or specific nutrients Common problem in the United States Can lead to obesity Some nutrients are toxic in large doses as well Typically linked to vitamin/mineral usage Energy for the Body Energy value of food is measured in calories Carbohydrates = 4 calories per gram Fat = 9 calories per gram Protein = 4 calories per gram Alcohol = 7 calories per gram NUTRIENTS
Carbohydrates Fats Protein Carbohydrates (CHO) Provide body with energy While body will also run on fat and protein, CHO is preferred source of energy 55% of total caloric intake should be accounted for by CHO Classified into simple (sugars) or complex (starch, glycogen, fiber) Sugars (simple) Glucose (blood sugar) is needed to fuel cells
Sources fruit, syrups, honey Fructose (fruit sugar) occurs naturally in honey Lactose (milk sugar) Sucrose (table sugar) Must be careful not to consume too much sugar in diet (empty calories) Replaces other nutritious foods from diet Carbohydrates cont. Starches (complex) Found in cereal grains, potatoes, and beans Broken down during digestion into glucose units and stored as glycogen in the body Glycogen is stored in the liver and muscles Glycogen is broken down and released as glucose in the body when necessary Carbohydrates cont. Fiber (complex) Not digested in small intestine Sources Moves through digestive tract relatively unchanged Fruits, vegetables, whole grain breads and cereals, nuts, beans, and peas Low fiber diets are blamed for intestinal problems
Hemorrhoids Colon cancer Divertculosis Carbohydrates cont. Certain fibers attract water and aid in the formation of bulky stools Also may be helpful in lowering blood cholesterol levels, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease Oats, fruits, and vegetables are recommended Help to interfere with absorption of cholesterol in the intestinal tract = reduces cholesterol entering the blood stream 38 grams and 25 grams are recommended for men and women, respectively
Example : Subway, 6 inch Oven Roasted Chicken Breast on Wheat = 6g
Carbohydrates cont. Fats Extremely important in one's diet Extra calories consumed as carbohydrates, proteins and fats can all be converted into triglycerides and stored as adipose tissue Stored for future use Stored fat serves multiple functions
Serve to cushion organs Provide energy to muscles Fats provide flavoring and texture to food substances Most Americans consume too much fat, contributing to obesity and cardiovascular disease Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats Saturated fats are derived primarily from animal products (meat, eggs, and dairy products) Also can be found in coconut and palm oils
Fats cont. Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature Canola, peanut, olive oil, and vegetable oils Mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce blood cholesterol Some polyunsaturated fats are essential as they are not produced by the body Unsaturated fats tend to be better for an individual Saturated fats tend to increase blood cholesterol levels
Fats cont. Cholesterol Responsible for creating blocked arteries cardiovascular disease Fatrelated substance found in animal foods If enough is not consumed your body will produce it naturally If blood cholesterol becomes too high, the risk of cardiovascular disease increases Saturated fat can increase lowdensity lipoprotein and bad cholesterol = increasing risk of heart disease
Fats cont. Trans Fatty acids Omega3 fatty acids Resemble saturated fatty acids Results in hardening oils Often found in cookies, crackers, dairy products, meats, fast foods Will boost levels of bad cholesterol No safe level no health benefit Found in corn oil and fish oil 1 tablespoon Located in milk and some vegetable oils Less than teaspoon Omega6 fatty acids Fats cont. Fat Intake Makes up 40% of total calories consumed by Americans Recommended levels (2530%) Cholesterol recommended levels = 300mg Obesity in children has increased 160% in the past 2 years. Fats cont. Protein Required for growth, repair and maintenance of cells Major constituent of all structures and organs of the body Not a primary source of energy Greater need for protein during periods of growth, breast feeding, active bodybuilding Recommendations Based on body weight Should be approx. 1215% of caloric intake Americans tend to eat much more than necessary Composed of smaller subunits (amino acids) 20 amino acids in the body, 9 must be supplied by diet All are necessary for growth Primarily found in animal products, some in plants Protein cont. Regulator Nutrients
Water Vitamins Minerals Most essential nutrient 60% of the adult body is water Required for energy production, maintaining cell function and cooling of the body Body requires 2.5 liters (10 glasses) daily Dehydration Experience fatigue, nausea, vomiting, fainting and death (worst case scenario) More likely when outdoors and active in the heat Must prehydrate and continue during activity Water Sports Drinks Allow for hydration, electrolyte and energy replacement Better for rehydrating, water itself can shut off thirst response and turn on kidney function prematurely Not all the same
Varying amounts of electrolytes and carbohydrates 14 grams of CHO per 8 oz. is optimal Effective in enhancing performance during endurance and short term highintensity activities Vitamins Vitamins (13) serve as regulators in many body processes Fat soluble vitamins
Vitamins A, D, E, K Found in fatty portion of foods and oils Not easily eliminated from the body Water soluble vitamins Vitamin C, Bcomplex vitamins Help to regulate metabolism but cannot be stored Each serves a series of roles May prevent premature aging, cancers, heart disease and other health problems Found in a number of dark green, deep yellow and orange fruits and vegetables Supplemental intake of antioxidants Need to be cautious with additional intake particularly with vitamins C and E Minerals More than 20 minerals have essential roles in the body Many are stored in liver and bones Required for a number of things
Bones Teeth Energy production Maintaining water balance Calcium Necessary for bone formation, clotting, and muscle contractions Found in dairy products Poor food choices and weight loss are responsible for low calcium levels in young women Lifetime deficiency may lead to osteoporosis (brittle bones) Heredity, cigarette smoking, menopause, lack of physical activity and poor calcium intake could further contribute to osteoporosis Iron Required for oxygen carrying pigment (hemoglobin) in red blood cells (RBC's) Without hemoglobin oxygen carrying ability of RBC's is limited Iron deficiency can be caused by:
Menstrual blood loss Lack of meat in the diet Lack of iron in the diet Vitamin C deficiency which limits iron absorption Good sources Meats Iron supplements 4050% of calories consumed in fast food are fat calories Add the "supersize" label and the problem is compounded Some fast food establishments have worked to broaden their menu to include healthier options Nutritional information is also available for the consumer The Problem with Eating Fast Food Requirement Amount of a nutrient that is needed to prevent nutrient deficiency disease Recommendations Takes into account the amount necessary to avoid deficiency Includes a margin for safety US Recommended Dietary Allowances (USRDA) Allows for comparison of the nutritional values of food products Nutrient Requirements and Recommendations Dietary Guidelines Nutrition and health recommendations for healthy children and adults Beginning in 2005 more emphasis was placed on increasing physical activity and reducing caloric intake Provide healthy diet information based on research Emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fat free or lowfat milk, lean meats/poultry, fish, beans, eggs and nuts Reading Labels Lists total calories per serving Calories from fat Information that is based on percent daily values for a standard 2000 calorie diet Provides information on specific nutrients relative to % daily values Nutritional Supplements Often times supplements are consumed, providing more than the recommended amounts of particular nutrients Little evidence that vitamin, mineral or protein supplementation enhances physical performance Experts do not agree that more protein is necessary for body building Most Americans ingest plenty to meet needs even when physically active Too many amino acids in the body could be harmful
Amino acid imbalances Dehydration Increase calcium loss Protein Supplements Vitamin and Mineral Supplements Elderly individuals may benefit as they typically have difficulty obtaining all the necessary vitamins and minerals Healthy individuals typical meet the standards Antioxidant, calcium, folic acid, and iron supplements may be recommended under certain circumstances Deficiency, illness, hormonal changes, increased activity levels Creatine Supplements Naturally occurring substance in body produced by kidneys, pancreas and liver Found in meat and fish Role in metabolism Two types (free creatine and phosphocreatine) Phosphocreatine is stored in skeletal muscle and works to resynthesize ATP during activity Supplements in General Be a careful consumer Generic vitamins and minerals are just as effective Don't be misled by labels Consuming more than 150% of the recommended levels may be unhealthy Supplements should not be a substitute for food What else do we put in our body?
.....relative to physical activity.... Sugar Ingesting large quantities of sugar prior to activity causes an increase of glucose in the blood Stimulates insulin release allowing cells to utilize free circulating glucose, sparing blood glucose May have a positive effect on performance However, some athletes are sensitive to high CHO feedings and have problems with increased levels of insulin Caffeine Central nervous system stimulant found in carbonated beverages, coffee, tea, and chocolate Increase alertness and decrease fatigue Too much causes nervousness, irritability, increased heart rate and headaches Alcohol Provides energy for the body Little nutritional value Central nervous system depressant decreases coordination, slows reaction time, decreases mental alertness increases urine production (diuretic effect) Not wise to replace water with alcohol before, during, or following activity Too much alcohol can damage liver and brain cells Herbs Trend natural alternatives to drugs and medications Safe to ingest as natural medicines with few side effects (occasional allergic reaction) However, ephedrine is a CNS stimulant that has been linked to lifethreatening conditions No federal or governmental regulations on quality or distribution Use caution with consumption Offer nutrients that nourish brain, glands and hormones Herbs serve as body balancers that work with functions of the body Aid body in healing and regulating itself Preevent Meal Long term food consumption is more important than immediate consumption Purpose should be to provide competitor with nutrients/energy and fluids for competitions (taking digestibility into consideration) A light (300 calories) meal 24 hours before is encouraged Avoid a full stomach and fatty foods Preloading with water is also suggested VIDEO ...
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- Spring '08