Unformatted text preview: Psychology and its Evolution
The Growth of a Discipline What is Psychology? (1) Psychology is the science and systematic study of behavior and mental processes (cognition). It includes the investigation of the physiological processes underlying behavior and cognition. (2) Psychology also includes the art of using skills based on accumulated knowledge and wisdom to help people who are having problems in living. SEVEN KEY THEMES Psychology is empirical Psychology is theoretically diverse Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context Behavior is determined by multiple causes Our behavior is shaped by our cultural heritage Heredity and environment jointly influence behavior Our experience of the world is highly subjective Areas of Psychology Seven academic areas Five applied areas Figure 1.8 Major research areas in contemporary psychology. Most research psychologists specialize in one of the seven broad areas described here. The figures in the pie chart reflect the percentage of academic and research psychologists belonging to APA who iden tify each area as their primary interest. (Data based on 1997 APA Directory Survey) Figure 1.9 Principal professional specialties in contemporary psychology. Most psychologists who deliver professional services to the public specialize in one of the fou r areas described here. The figures in the pie chart reflect the percentage APA members deli vering professional services who identify each area as their chief specialty. (Data based on 1997 APA Directory Survey) A Tour of Davie Hall Biological psychology Clinical psychology Social psychology Developmental psychology Cognitive psychology Psychometric psychology Psychology and its Neighbors The "Psychos"
Psychology Psychiatry Psychoanalysis Clinical Social Work UNC 1919 Psychology: Birth of a New Science Prior to 1879 Physiology + Philosophy = Psychology Wilhelm Wundt (18321920) University of Leipzig, Germany Established the first laboratory for the study of psychology in 1879 and psychology is born Wundt defined psychology as the "scientific study of conscious experience" Launch Video Wilhelm Wundt Psychology Goes International Leipzig, the place to study psychology Graduates of Wundt's program set up new labs across Europe and North America G. Stanley Hall (18461924) Johns Hopkins University Between 1883 and 1893, 24 new laboratories in North America Established the first psychology laboratory in the U.S. in 1883 The Battle of the "Schools" in the U.S.: Titchener vs. James Two intellectual schools of thought regarding the science of psychology Structuralists focused on analyzing consciousness into basic elements Structrualism led by Edward Titchener Functionalism led by William James Principles of Psychology (2 Vols.) Functionalists focused on investigating the function or purpose of consciousness Introspection careful, systematic observations of one's own conscious experience WILLIAM JAMES
The Mature James Who Won the Battle? Most historians give the edge to James and the functionalists Today, psychologists are not really categorized as structuralists or functionalists Applied psychology and Behaviorism descendants of functionalism Behaviorism early 1900's The next major school of thought to influence the development of psychology JOHN B. WATSON John B. Watson (18781958): United States of America Founder of Behaviorism Psychology = scientific study of behavior
Behavior = overt or observable responses or activities Radical reorientation of psychology as a science of observable behavior The "blank slate" idea and emphasis on nurture Nature and Nurture The role of human nature is now an important part of psychology and neither nurture or nature alone determine thought and behavior they interact Watson's Extreme View of the role or Nurture
Give me a dozen healthy infants, well formed, and my own special world to bring them up in, and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select doctor, lawyer, artist, merchantchief, and yes, even beggarman and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, vocations and the race of his ancestors. Behaviorism Revisited: B.F. Skinner B.F. Skinner (19041990): Harvard University Environmental factors determine behavior Responses that lead to positive outcomes are repeated Responses that lead to negative outcomes are not repeated BREAK
"Be the change you wish to see in the world" Mahatma Ghandi Freud's Ideas Sigmund Freud (1856 1939), Austria Founder of PSYCHOANALYSIS that has influenced psychology Unconscious sexual and aggressive motivation are the causes of much behavior and thought Humanistic Psychology: Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
Abraham Maslow Humanistic Psychology Dissatisfaction with behaviorism and Psychoanalysis We have free will and are not robots Emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, their freedom, and their potential for growth The "third force" in psychology Cognitive Psychology
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_ Charles Darwin and Evolutionary Psychology Evolutionary Psychology We are not "blank slates". Behaviors and ways of thinking have evolved in the same way that bodily structures have evolved. We have a "stone age mind in a modern skull." POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY The Martin Seligman Story What makes us happy? What are the benefits of happiness? How can we stay on the positive side? What is Psychology?
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