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Unformatted text preview: Flexibility and Body Composition
Lifetime Fitness Lesson 5 Today's Quiz Where does NC rank in terms of the fattest 17th states in the US? What is the leanest state? Colorado What is the fattest state? Mississippi What percentage of adults in NC are obese or overweight? 62.6% What percentage of children in NC get the minimum amount of physical activity?54% What is flexibility? Flexibility Defined as the range of motion possible about a given joint or series of joints Specific to a given joint or movement When limited, extremity motion may be negatively impacted Active and Passive Range of Motion Active range of motion (AROM) Motion of a joint generated by a muscle contraction Not always an indicator of joint stiffness or looseness Passive range of motion (PROM) Portion of total range of motion through which a joint may be moved passively, without active muscle contraction Movement beyond AROM Agonist vs. Antagonist Muscles Agonist muscle The muscle that contracts and generates the desired joint motion (i.e. quadriceps when generating knee extension) Antagonist muscle Muscle that stretches in response to agonist muscle contraction (i.e. hamstrings stretch as quadriceps contract to extend knee) Coordination between agonists and antagonists is critical for coordinated, smooth joint motion What are the different stretching techniques? Goal of a flexibility program should be to improve joint range of motion Techniques include: Static (passive) stretching Dynamic (active) stretching Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) Static (Passive) Stretching Effective and popular technique Passive stretching An outside force or resistance is provided by yourself, a partner, gravity or a weight Stretch to the point of tension, back off slightly and then hold for a minimum of 15 seconds (30+ is better) Controlled, less chance of injury Dynamic (Active) Stretching Each joint is moved in a controlled manner through a series of controlled movements Mimics sport/physical activity May be more appropriate than static stretching as part of the preexercise warmup Sedentary individuals need to use caution when attempting this type of stretching Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Various techniques involving muscle contractions and relaxation Slowreversalholdrelax Contractrelax Holdrelax Typically involves a pushing phase (10 sec) followed by a relaxation phase (10 sec) Best if performed with a partner Partner is able to provide some additional passive pressure to increase ROM and stretch Accurate joint ROM measures are difficult Various devices have been developed and utilized How do you know if you have good flexibility? Goiniometer Sit and reach boxes Multiple tests have also been developed Shoulder lift test Trunk extension test Body composition refers to the proportion of fat and fatfree mass in the body Fatfree (lean) mass What is body composition? Body composition measurements are more accurate in determining healthy weight management. Bone, muscle, tendon, ligament, connective tissue, nerves, skin, hair, organs, water Goal of weight management is to maximize lean tissue mass by increasing muscular strength and endurance and by minimizing the accumulation of body fat Body Fat % Ranges in College Students Normal Males 1219%, females 1825% Males 812%, females 1218% Physically active Limits to remain above Males 5%, females 12% Certain amount is necessary for normal function and good health (essential body fat) Other considerations of % Body Fat As age increases, average % body fat increases If above normal range, individual is considered overfat If below average the individual is considered underfat Fat cells are distributed throughout the body. Essential fat How is fat stored and where do you find it?
Necessary for organ cushioning, temperature regulation and storing energy Nonessential fat Accumulates when food intake exceeds energy demands Stores triglycerides (liquid form of fat) Adipose cells Moves in and out of cells as body needs it What determines how much fat you have? Number of adipose cells Increases before birth and throughout life Obesity means that you have too many fat cells Size of adipose cells Dependent on the amount of fat that is stored Fluctuates relative to caloric balance More terms Overweight When an individual has excess body fat relative to bone structure and height Obese Individual has a lot of excess body fat The statistics:
Center for Disease Control (CDC) indicates that 2 out of 3 adults over age 20 are overweight or obese Thirty percent are considered obese Twice as many children and adolescents are overweight compared to 20 years ago The key to altering levels of body fat is to make lifestyle changes and to make them in moderation Move more, eat less! How does skinfold measurement work? Using skinfold caliper measurements taken at various sites Measure thickness of layer of subcutaneous fat Same individual should take repeated measurements to reduce error and increase accuracy Body Mass Index (BMI)
Ratio of person's body weight to height Measure by kg/m2 BMI = 18.5 25 is considered healthy body weight BMI = 25 30 is overweight; >30 is obese Not the best measure for muscular individuals ...
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- Spring '08