Reading Ch. 13- Personality .pdf - Reading Personality...

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13.1 Where Does Personality Come From? Personality is a combination of people's genetics, forces in their environments, and the life cho they make Personality : a person's characteristic thoughts, emotional responses, and behaviors Psychologist are interested in whole persons They focus on an individual and try learning the most about him How do particular characteristics influence behavior Personality Trait : a pattern of thought, emotion, and behavior that is relatively consistent ove time and across situations Genes may predispose certain traits or characteristics but are expressed in unique circumstan Nature and nurture work together to produce individuals Personality Is Rooted In Genetics James Loehlin and Robert Nichols (1976) Study the heritability of personality in over 800 twins Identical twins more in common than fraternal Adoption Studies Parenting style may have relatively little impact on personality Two children who are not biologically related and raised in the same household are no m alike than two strangers randomly picked off the street Minimum level of parenting = crucial Particular style of parenting = less of an impact on personality The types of peers children have affect how they think, behave, and feel Are There Specific Genes For Personality? Genes predispose us to have certain personality traits Each person experiences different circumstances that may cause epigenetic changes and the selective expression of certain genes Temperaments Are Evident In Infancy Temperaments : general tendencies to feel or act in certain ways Broader than personality traits Represent the innate biological structures of personality and are more stable Reading - Personality Thursday, October 19, 2017 2:13 PM
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Represent the innate biological structures of personality and are more stable Ronald Buss and Robert Plomin: Activity Level : overall amount of energy and of behavior a person exhibits Emotionality : the intensity of emotional reactions Sociability : general tendency to affiliate with others These 3 temperamental styles are the main personality factors influenced by genes In a study Girls demonstrated stronger abilities to control their attention and resist their impulses Boys were more physically active and experienced more high-intensity pleasure There Are Long-Term Implications of Temperaments Early childhood temperaments significantly influence behavior and personality structure throu person's development early childhood temperaments may be good predictors of later behavior Inhibited : biologically determined Personality Is Adaptive Personality traits useful for survival and reproduction have been favored Groups whose members possess diverse skills have a selective advantage over groups whose members have a limited number of skills Animal Personalities Most history of psychological science People project their own sense of personality onto their pet Humans and other animals evolved as they solved occasionally similar adaptive challenges
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