11. Globalization and the Environment(1).pptx - Globalization and the Environment Environmental Issues Complexity interpenetration pollution down the

11. Globalization and the Environment(1).pptx -...

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Globalization and the Environment
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Environmental Issues Complexity interpenetration, pollution down the road. Temporal and spatial uncertainty what will happen in the future, how much is it going to affect us. Irreducibility holistic in nature, we cannot approach only one part, we have to consider them as a whole. Spontaneity things tend to happen fast especially in environmental disasters. Collectivity collective action problems, common pool resources, shirking/free-riding
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Sustainable (economic!) Development Long-term economic growth depends on careful stewardship of the natural environment Environmentalists Liberalization= unequal economic growth, resources for debt, competition (race to the bottom), increased pollution, unsustainable consumption of resources, political unrest Free Trade Trade promotes growth and alleviates poverty= environmental benefits Elimination of trade barriers= increased value of resources Environmental progress is easier to achieve under conditions of prosperity
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The Rio Declaration (1992) Right to development Capacity building and technology/knowledge transfers Common but differentiated responsibilities Equity, eradicate poverty Precautionary principle Polluter pays Environmental impact assessments
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Obstacles to Cooperation Procedural obstacles: Lowest common denominator Slow development and implementation: time lag Other obstacles The absence of necessary conditions Concern, contractual environment, and capacity Linked economic and political interests Unequal adjustment costs Different core beliefs
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Opportunities for Improvement Emphasize and support national reporting and monitoring Increase and more effectively target technical and financial assistance Coordination between actors: transnational advocacy networks Build domestic capacity Negative publicity Trade sanctions
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Ozone Depletion Ozone concentrations in the lower stratosphere over Antarctica will increase by 5%–10% by 2020 and return to pre-1980 levels by about 2060–2075
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Ozone Depletion Ozone layer helps to shield the earth from ultraviolet radiation produced by the sun and plays a critical role in absorbing UV-B radiation. air conditioning and refrigerating systems, propellants in aerosol sprays, and solvents in the cleaning of electronic components Issues economic importance absence of firm scientific consensus strenuous antiregulatory campaign by corporations producing or using CFCs concerns for the cost of unilateral regulation
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