Society Ch13 - 160 Ch 13 Family and Religion Chapter 13...

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__________________________________________________________________________ ____ 160 Ch. 13 · Family and Religion Chapter 13 Family and Religion ______________________________________________ Detailed Outline I. The Family: Basic Concepts The family is a social institution, found in all societies, that unites individuals into cooperative groups that oversee the bearing and raising of children. Family ties are also called kinship , a social bond based on blood, marriage, or adoption. In the United States, most people regard a family unit as a social group of two or more people, related by blood, marriage, or adoption, who usually live together. Families form around marriage , a legally sanctioned relationship, usually involving economic cooperation, as well as sexual activity and childbearing, that people expect to be enduring. II. Family: Global Variations In preindustrial societies people take a broad view of family ties, recognizing the extended family , a family unit that includes parents and children as well as other kin. With industrialization, increasing social mobility and geographic migration give rise to the nuclear family , a family unit composed of one or two parents and their children. A. Marriage Patterns Cultural norms, and often laws, identify people as suitable or unsuitable marriage partners. Some norms promote endogamy , marriage between people of the same social category. By contrast, exogamy refers to marriage between people of different social categories. In high-income nations, laws prescribe monogamy , marriage uniting two partners. Many lower-income countries permit polygamy , marriage that unites three or more people. B. Residential Patterns In some societies, married couples live with or near the husband’s family, termed patrilocality . In other societies, couples live with or near the wife’s family, termed matrilocality . Industrial societies display a pattern of neolocality , meaning a married couple lives apart from both sets of parents. C. Patterns of Descent Descent refers to the system by which members of a society trace kinship over generations. Most preindustrial societies trace kinship through just the father’s or the mother’s side of the family; respectively, patrilineal or matrilineal descent. Industrial societies recognize bilateral descent, meaning both the father’s side and the mother’s side of the family D. Patterns of Authority Most societies in history have displayed a patriarchal pattern of authority; no
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__________________________________________________________________________ ____ 161 Ch. 13 · Family and Religion truly matriarchal society has ever existed. In industrial societies like the United States, more egalitarian societies are evolving. III. Theoretical Analysis of the Family A. Functions of the Family: Structural-Functional Analysis According to this paradigm, the family performs many vital tasks: 1. socialization 2. regulation of sexual activity (The incest taboo is a norm forbidding sexual relations or marriage between certain relatives.) 3. social placement 4. material and emotional security 5. Critical review Structural-functional analysis explains why society depends on family, but glosses over diversity and negative aspects of family life.
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