HTMT_NNC_C4.pps - Chapter 4 ISA 1.The Von Neumann Model The...

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Chapter 4 - ISA 1.The Von Neumann Model
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4-2 The Stored Program Computer 1943: ENIAC Presper Eckert and John Mauchly -- first general electronic computer. (or was it John V. Atanasoff in 1939?) Hard-wired program -- settings of dials and switches. 1944: Beginnings of EDVAC among other improvements, includes program stored in memory 1945: John von Neumann wrote a report on the stored program concept, known as the First Draft of a Report on EDVAC The basic structure proposed in the draft became known as the “von Neumann machine” (or model). a memory , containing instructions and data a processing unit , for performing arithmetic and logical operations a control unit , for interpreting instructions For more history, see http://
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4-3 Von Neumann Model M E M O R Y C O N T R O L U N I T M A R M D R I R P R O C E S S I N G U N I T A L U T E M P P C O U T P U T M o n i t o r P r i n t e r L E D D i s k I N P U T K e y b o a r d M o u s e S c a n n e r D i s k
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4-4 Memory 2 k x m array of stored bits Address unique ( k -bit) identifier of location Contents m -bit value stored in location Basic Operations: LOAD read a value from a memory location STORE write a value to a memory location 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 1101 1110 1111 00101101 10100010
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4-5 Interface to Memory How does processing unit get data to/from memory? MAR : Memory Address Register MDR : Memory Data Register To LOAD a location (A): 1. Write the address (A) into the MAR. 2. Send a “read” signal to the memory. 3. Read the data from MDR. To STORE a value (X) to a location (A): 1. Write the data (X) to the MDR. 2. Write the address (A) into the MAR. 3. Send a “write” signal to the memory. M E M O R Y M A R M D R
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4-6 Processing Unit Functional Units ALU = Arithmetic and Logic Unit could have many functional units. some of them special-purpose (multiply, square root, …) LC-3 performs ADD, AND, NOT Registers Small, temporary storage Operands and results of functional units LC-3 has eight registers (R0, …, R7), each 16 bits wide Word Size number of bits normally processed by ALU in one instruction also width of registers LC-3 is 16 bits P R O C E S S I N G U N I T A L U T E M P
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4-7 Input and Output Devices for getting data into and out of computer memory Each device has its own interface, usually a set of registers like the memory’s MAR and MDR LC-3 supports keyboard (input) and monitor (output) keyboard: data register (KBDR) and status register (KBSR) monitor: data register (DDR) and status register (DSR) Some devices provide both input and output disk, network Program that controls access to a device is usually called a driver . I N P U T K e y b o a r d M o u s e S c a n n e r D i s k O U T P U T M o n i t o r P r i n t e r L E D D i s k
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4-8 Control Unit Orchestrates execution of the program Instruction Register (IR) contains the current instruction .
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  • Spring '16
  • dennis

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