Unit 3 Topic 8-Lesson 1: Chocolate 500 different chemicals in chocolate What we like in chocolate is not so much the taste, but the texture o The melting temperature of chocolate is 36 degrees Celsius, 1 degree lower than our body temperature chocolate actually melts in our mouths Swedish botanist came across cocoa (the fruit of the cocoa tree) o He called in theobroma cacao (theo meaning god in greek, and theobroma meaning god of foods). o The Aztecs of Mexico used cocoa/cocoa drinks to satisfy the gods. They would offer it in liquid in gold goblets that could only be used once Cocoa on its own is very bitter o Aztec term for chocolate/cocoa is xocoatl, which means bitter Cocoa was very valuable o The natives used is as currency o When the Spaniards came to Mexico, they found vaults of cocoa beans. Spaniards believed it had aphrodisiac properties and sent it back to Spain for this reason. Became very popular in Europe as a beverage. Was mixed with a lot of sugar, vanilla and cinnamon to get rid of the bitter taste Today in Canada, we consume about 4 kilos (9 pounds) of chocolate each per year. Chocolate production o Derived from the cocoa flower (same family as the orchid). Grows on cocoa trees. The flower grows throughout the tree, not just on the extremities. o No growing season o When the cocoa pod reaches maturity, it’s picked up and split open. It is left open and the seeds start fermenting. The sugar present gets converted to alcohol, the alcohol gets converted to acetic acid, and the acetic acid gives rise to a number of esters. o Fermentation process adds flavor to the cocoa o Cocoa seeds are left to dry in the sun o The cocoa beans are then roasted. This enhances the flavor. The reaction taking place is called the Maillard reaction, a browning reaction. Reaction between amino acids and proteins and various sugars that gives taste. This makes the beans become much darker. o Next the cocoa beans are crushed to get cocoa nibs, which are then shelled. The nibs can be crushed in special machines to give chocolate liquor (no-alcohol). This is the basis for making chocolate. o Closest in taste to chocolate liquor is baking chocolate. o Chocolate by itself is very better and had a very high fat content In the early 19 th century the van Houten family tried to improve chocolate. First, Casparus van Houten managed to separate the cocoa powder from the fat (separate cocoa cake which is just compressed cocoa powder from cocoa butter) Cocoa butter has a melting point close to the body temperature, so it is used in cosmetics like lipstick
The cocoa cake did not dissolve well. Process to improve the cocoa cake called the Dutch process introduced by Conrad van Houten. He treated natural cocoa with an alkali and converted it into powder from which the acid had to be neutralized.
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