ANAT261 Lab Exam Theory Lab 1 -Nuclei/DNA/RNA appear basophilic (blue)= hematoxylin -Cytoplasm/Proteins appear acidophilic (red/pink) =eosin -Types of epithelial tissues (rests on a BM, avascular): –Simple •Squamous (endothelium) •Cuboidal (thyroid) •Columnar (GI tract) –Stratified •Squamous (skin) •Cuboidal (sweat duct) •Transitional (urinary bladder) –Pseudostratified (trachea) -Skin is composed of: epidermis, dermis, hypodermis. -The epidermis of the skin can be classified as a stratified squamous keratinized epithelium -The dermis and hypodermis are connective tissue -The dermis has 4 layers: STRATUM CORNEUM: cells don’t have a nucleus and their cytoplasm contains keratin. The desmosomes begin to break down and the shedding of the cells at the surface is known as desquamation. STRATUM GRANULOSUM: contains basophilic keratohyalin granules (made of phosphorylated histidine-rich protein and cysteine-containing proteins) that stain with hematoxylin. Flat cells on 2-5 layers. STRATUM SPINOSUM: polygonal cells joined together by desmosomes. Tonofibrils that insert into the several layers of cells give it a spiny appearance. STRATUM GERMINATIVUM: 1 layer of columnar cells that actively divide. The cells are joined to the BM via desmosomes. Lab 2 Glands: Function of the gland Shape of the gland Method of secretion What does it secrete -Exocrine -Endocrine -Simple tubular (coiled= sweat gland) -Simple branched tubular -Simple alveolar -Merocrine (sweat gland) -Holocrine (sebaceous gland) -Serous: watery, protein-rich fluid -Mucous: carbohydrate-rich, viscous -Sebaceous: oil, lipid
-Simple branched alveolar (sebaceous gland) SWEAT GLAND* SEBACEOUS GLAND* Function of the gland Exocrine Exocrine Shape Simple coiled tubular Simple branched alveolar Method of secretion Merocrine Holocrine What does it secrete Serous gland, secretes sweat Sebaceous, secretes sebum Where do you find it Have sweat glands all over the body -Secretory portion: in hypodermis -Duct of sweat gland: hypodermis and dermis In the dermis, at the point where the IRS of hair ends. The gland uses the space of where the IRS was as a duct. Cell description -Secretory portion: 1 layer of pyramidal cells that are lighter. The cells are surrounded by contractile cells called myoepithelial cells that have a BM under. -Duct of sweat gland: double layer of cuboidal cells that are more basophilic. Smaller lumen. -Basal cells line the gland. They are basophilic and flat and will migrate towards the center -When cells migrate towards the center, they swell up and begins to degenerate -Cells can also become vacuolated (vacuoles in secretory cells) *Lined by a BM Hair: lined by a BM, comes from invagination of epithelium (hair follicle), keratinized. -Dermal papilla is composed of CT -Arrector pili muscle is linked to lower region of hair. When it contracts, sebum is release from sebaceous gland and acts as an insulator.
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- Spring '08