Roosevelt’s Big Stick Diplomacy: 1899–1908Events1899 -John Haywrites First Open Door Note1900 - U.S. sends troops to China to suppress BoxerRebellion Hay drafts Second Open Door NoteMcKinleyis reelected1901 - McKinley is assassinated;TheodoreRooseveltbecomes president1902 - Colombia rejects canal treaty1903 -U.S. backs Panamanian revolt againstColombia (Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty)1904 - Roosevelt issuesRoosevelt Corollary to theMonroe Doctrine Roosevelt is elected presidentConstruction on Panama Canal begins1905 - United States invades Dominican RepublicRoosevelt negotiates peace to end Russo-JapaneseWar1906 - San Francisco bans Japanese students frompublic schools Algeciras Conference United Statesinvades Cuba
1907 - Roosevelt sends Great White Fleet on worldtour Roosevelt strikes “Gentlemen’s Agreement” withJapan1908 - Root-Takahira Agreement1914 - Panama Canal is completedKey PeopleWilliam McKinley-25th U.S. president; reelected in1900 but assassinated just months after inaugurationin 1901John Hay - President McKinley’s secretary of state;drafted Open Door Notes requesting that worldpowers respect free trade in Asia and China’sterritorial statusTheodore Roosevelt - 26th U.S. president; took officeafter McKinley’s assassination;adopted aggressiveforeign policy and asserted American influence andpower in the Western HemisphereChina and the Open Door Notes
In the aftermath of the Spanish-American War, theUnited States was presented with yet another problem—China. After losing the Sino-Japanese War of 1895,the Chinese could only sit back and watch as Japan,Russia, and the Europeans carved their ancientcountry into separate spheres of influence. U.S.policymakers, afraid that Americans would be leftwithout any lucrative Chinese markets, scrambled tostop the feeding frenzy.