REVIEW 2 .docx - REVIEW 2 Chapter 4 Exam 1 September 25 th...

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REVIEW 2 Chapter 4 Exam 1 September 25 th , 2016 1 . Describe the Cell Theory All organisms are composed of one or more cells The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all living organisms Cells arise only from the division of preexisting cells 2 . What are the basic functions of a cell? - As the basic structural and functional units of all living organisms, cells carry out the essential processes of life Cells contain DNA and RNA, which carry hereditary information and direct manufacture of cellular molecules Cells use energy, respond to changes in their environment, reproduce, and pass on hereditary information 3 . Describe a technique you may use to study a cell. When would you use an electron microscope? Most cells are too small to be seen by the unaided so I would use a microscopy to see cells and the structures within them: Light microscopes use light to illuminate the specimen Electron microscopes use electrons to illuminate the specimen 4. What are cell walls? Cell walls support individual cells, contain the pressure produced in the central vacuole, and protect cells against invading bacteria and fungi 5. Distinguish between the cytosol and the cytoplasm -Cytosol is the intra-cellular fluid that is present inside the cells. cytoplasm is the part of the cell which is contained within the entire cell membrane. It is in the cytosol that all the metabolic chemical reactions of prokaryotes take place. On the contrary large scale cellular activities including glycolis, cell division and other metabolic paths take place in the cytoplasm. 6. How are eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells different? - Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound organelles, such as the nucleus, while prokaryotic cells do not. Differences in cellular structure of prokaryotes and eukaryotes include the presence of mitochondria and chloroplasts, the cell wall, and the structure of chromosomal DNA . 7. What is the function of bacterial sex pili? 8 . Describe a technique you would use to separate cellular organelle. -Fractionation, which is devised to separate the various cell components while preserving their individual functions. 9. What is the function of the cell membrane? - The cell membrane (plasma membrane) is a thin semi-permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell . Its function is to protect the integrity of the interior of the cell by allowing certain substances into the cell, while keeping other substances out. It also serves as a base of attachment for the cytoskeleton in some organisms and the cell wall in others. Thus the cell membrane also serves to help support the cell and help maintain its shape.
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