HISTORY OF JAZZ CONCISE NOTES.docx - HISTORY OF JAZZ I...

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HISTORY OF JAZZ I. Introduction, orientation and expectations Africanization o African influence on cross-fertilization of cultures reflects an African identity Cross Fertilization o refers to the hybridization of WestAfrican and Western European cultures (in terms of music, art, dance, language, religion, etc.) o not to be confused with assimilation o mutual exchange, as between dissimilar concepts, cultures, or classifications that enhances understanding or produces something benificial Acculturation o Adoption of elements of a dominant culture in order to function within it. o Acculturation differs from assimilation, in which differentethnic groups combine to form a new c ulture. Swing o a form of jazz that developed in early 1940's- o one of the most popular types and very "danceable" o focuses on the rhythmic feel or groove created by the musical interaction of the performers o typically characterized by "big band" instrumentation, a greater emphasis on solo passages Syncopation o Rhythms that are somewhat unexpected and which are off-beat o a variety of rhythms which are in some way unexpected which make some or all of a tune off beat o characteristic of jazz Jazz music names o March music, Novelty music, Juke music, Fun music, Ragged music, Blue music, Folk music, Jas, Jass, Jaz o It was called jazz because of the Jazz player ‘Jass’ and people use to say we want more ‘Jass’ and the name stuck. It could also be from African origin as it arose from their native language. Jazz o American classical music, highly vrtuositic, folk music, popular music. o Born on plantations of the north and the south. o Black culture was heavily influenced by drums which was traditionally a focal point of their culture. o African americans share core values however do not remember the words or meaning of some of the words.
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II. African and European Music in north America. European countries that participated in the slave trade o England o Portugal o france, o spain o holland Major Differences Between African and European Music in North America AFRICAN MUSIC EUROPEAN MUSIC Polyrhythm Monorhythm Predominately Pentatonic Predominately diatonic Multi-melodic Contrapuntal Functional Performance Predominately improvisational Predominately compositional Accidental harmony Precise harmony polytonal Definetly tonal concept Retention of African Music Elements in Blues and Jazz Call and response - The vocal responses from African American slaves; featured in work songs (like field holler); literally call and response (one person "calls" or sings a part and the rest of the troop sings in response) Blue notes- musical genre that originated in African-American communities in the "Deep South" of the US around the end of the 19th century, typically characterized by call-and-response form and AAB pattern, 12 bar, created by WC Handy; consists of three chords (I, IV, V) and twelve bars Polyrhythm- Simultaneous use of two or more conflicting rhythms Field holler/street cry-
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