Child development notes for midterm 1.docx - Midterm 1 Psychology child development Lecture notes and chapters 1 2 4.3 5 and 8.1-8.2 Three main research

Child development notes for midterm 1.docx - Midterm 1...

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Midterm 1: Psychology child development Lecture notes and chapters 1, 2, 4.3, 5, and 8.1-8.2 Three main research designs: 1. Cross sectional: samples of different ages children observed at the same time a. Pros: i. Cheap/fast ii. Demonstrates age differences (ex, 9 year old’s have a longer attention span than 6 year old’s) b. Cons: i. Cohort effect ii. Can’t say anything about how development occurs (continuous or discontinuous) 2. Longitudinal: following the same people over a long period of time (6 12) a. Pros: i. Tells us about development ii. Eliminates some aspects of the cohort effect 1. Changes = development NOT cohort b. Cons: i. Costs/time ii. Practice effects iii. Attrition iv. Cohort effect is still a problem (cross generational problem) 3. Sequential: Longitudinal + Cross sectional - Do a few longitudinal studies covering 6-12 year old’s in three years (group 1: 6 9, group 2: 9 12 all running at the same time) a. Pros: i. Benefits of longitudinal but less cost/time ii. Can compare different cohorts at the same ages 1. If different cohort effect 2. Is same development iii. Can compare different cohorts’ patterns of development across time b. Cons: i. A bit complicated ii. Still takes time iii. Doesn’t completely remove the cohort effect 1. Cross generational problems remain 4. Microgenetic designs: intense observation when developmental change is expected to occur a. Pros: i. Can watch development as it occurs b. Cons: i. Why did development occur 5. Age related designs: a. Many design choices Synaptogenesis: the formation of synapses between neurons in the nervous system. - Synaptic pruning (refers to the process by which extra neurons and synaptic connections are eliminated in order to increase the efficiency of neuronal transmissions.)
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Midterm 1: Psychology child development Lecture notes and chapters 1, 2, 4.3, 5, and 8.1-8.2 o The failure of synaptic pruning is associated with Autism (failure of synaptic pruning 18 months) - 0 3 years of synapse triples the brain weight Continuous: As we grow we go through gradual changes - Sapling growing into a tree Discontinuous: Stage theory (not a smooth continuous developmental path) - Stage 1: egg - Stage 2: larva - Stage 3: pupa - Stage 4: adult butterfly Nature: Development is due to genetic factors Nurture: Development is due to environmental factors Types of experiments: - True lab experiments: absolute control over the experiment - Field experiments: doing an experiment anywhere but in a controlled lab setting (ex, school, mall etc.) - Quasi experiments (in lab or in field): designed a lot like a true experiment except that in the quasi-experimental design, the participants are not randomly assigned to experimental groups Selective attrition: Refers to a tendency for some people in psychological experiments to be more likely to drop out than others.
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