GASTROENTEROLOGY DEPARTMENTLIMASSOL GENERAL HOSPITALThe Low FODMAP Diet(FODMAP = Fermenable Oligo – Di – Monosaccharides and Polyols)FODMAPs are carbohydrates (sugars) that are found in foods. Not all carbohydrates areconsidered FODMAPs.The FODMAPs in the diet are:Fructose (fruits, honey, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), etc)Lactose (dairy)Fructans (wheat, garlic, onion, inulin etc)Galactans (legumes such as beans, lentils, soybeans, etc)Polyols (sweeteners containing isomalt, mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol, stone fruitssuch as avocado, apricots, cherries, nectarines, peaches, plums, etc)FODMAPs are osmotic (means they pull water into the intestinal tract) may not bedigested or absorbed well and could be fermented upon by bacteria in the intestinal tractwhen eaten in excess.Symptoms of diarrhea, constipation, gas, bloating and/or cramping may occur in thosewho could be sensitive to the effects of FODMAPs. A low FODMAP diet may helpreduce symptoms, which will limit foods high in fructose, lactose, fructans, galactans andpolyols.The low FODMAP diet is often used in those with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Thediet could be possible used in those with similar symptoms arising from other digestivedisorders such as inflammatory bowel disease.This diet will also limit fiber as some high fiber foods are also high in FODMAPs. (Fiberis a component of complex carbohydrates that the body cannot digest, found in plantbased foods such as beans, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, etc)Tips for a low FODMAP diet:Review food lists, collect recipes and go grocery shopping first. Once you areready, start and follow the diet for 6 weeks.Read food labels. Avoid foods made with high FODMAP fruits/vegetables,HFCS, honey, inulin, wheat, soy etc. However, a food could be low inFODMAPs if a high FODMAP food is listed at the end of the ingredient list.1Resources:The Monash University Low FODMAP Diet Department of Gastroenterology, Monash University“Extending Our Knowledge of Fermentable, Short Chain Carbohydrates for Managing Gastrointestinal Symptoms” Nutrition in ClinicalPractice, June 2013“A FODMAP Diet Update: Craze or Credible?” Nutrition Issues in Gastroenterology December 2012“Evidence Based Dietary Management of Functional Gastrointestinal Symptoms: the FODMAP Approach” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology February 2010
GASTROENTEROLOGY DEPARTMENTLIMASSOL GENERAL HOSPITALBuy gluten free grains as they do not have wheat, barley, or rye in them. However,you do not need to be on a strict gluten diet as the focus is to limit FODMAPs, notgluten.Limit serving sizes for low lactose dairy to small amounts and low FODMAPfruits/vegetables to a ½ cup per meal ( ½ cup = size of a tennis ball) if you havesymptoms after eating these foods. The symptoms could be related to eating largeamounts of FODMAPs all at once.