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Sanjaya BudhathokiPeriod 1AP world historyThe Diversity of American Colonial Societies, 1530-1770Important QuestionsWhat kind of disease affected new world and How?What were the mains plants and animals introduced in New world and old world.?The Columbian ExchangeDemographic Changes:The peoples of new world lacked immunity to diseaseintroduced from the old world because of their long isolation from other continents. The death rate was high during this period. Diseases like smallpox killed more than 50% of the Amerindian population. The disease also spread to south America with devastatingeffects. Other main diseases that spread was Measles which arrived in New world in 1530s and was followed by diphtheria, typhus, influenza, and pulmonary plague.Malaria and yellow fever also arrived at tropical regions of america through Africanslave trade. The disease transfer as far as Hudson bay and the Great lakes. Transfer of Plants and Animals:The New and the old Worlds were participating in a vast exchange of plants and animals which affected their diet and lifestyle. European crops such as wheat,olives, grapes, and garden vegetables, African and Asian crops such as rice, bananas, coconuts, breadfruit, and sugar were introduced to the Americas. While American crops such as maize, potatoes, and manioc were introduced to Europe, Africa, and Asia. The introduction of European livestock such as cattle, pigs, horses, and sheep had a dramatic influence on the cultures of the native people of the Americas. Old world livestock
destroyed new world crops.
Important QuestionsWhat were the problem faced by New world and old world?What was the role of Catholic Church in the transmission of Christianity in the New world?Spanish America and BrazilState and Church:The Spanish crown moved quickly to take control over both native Americans and other Europeans by creating the Council of the Indies in 1524. Only high ranking Spanish officials in the colonies, the viceroysof New Spain and Peru enjoyed power. Local officials faced problem finding the way to new worldand their ships took long period of time. The people who got power also faced problem of long distance and geographic barriers. Because of mismanagement,In 1720 the Portuguese appointed viceroy to administer Brazil. The governmental institutions established by Spain and Portugal were highly developed, costly bureaucracies that thwarted local economic initiative and political experimentation. The Catholic church played important role in the introduction and transmission of Christian belief and European culture in both Spanish America and Brazil. Catholic clergy converted Amerindians and also protected them from exploitation and abuse of Spanish settlers. The priest Bartolome was the most influential defender of the Amerindians. He denounced Spanish policies toward the Amerindians and worked to improve the status of Amerindians.