Intelligence •A concept that refers to individual differences in abilities to: oAcquire knowledgeoThink and reason effectively oDeal adaptively with the environmentThe Psychometric Approach to Intelligence•Psychometrics: the statistical study of psychological tests•The g factor (Spearman)oIntelligence performance governed by:-General intelligence (g)-Specific abilities •Thurstone’s Primary abilities oIntelligence performance governed only by specific abilities Theories •Spearman’s g factor(1904) - a theory of general intelligence termed g•G is a kind of mental energywhich flows into everything a person does•A person who is good at mathematics is probably also good at reading comprehension, has awide vocabulary, etc.•Thus, g or general intelligenceis a type of mental energy which allows one to be consistently good or poor at a variety of different tasksSpearman •In addition to a g Spearman also proposed that there were special abilities termed S •S is a mental energy specific to a task•If you are good at math, it’s a combination of g and s•S is necessary to account for variability across tasks (better at some than others)Theories cont’•Thurstone’s (1938) Primary Mental Abilities •7 Primary Mental Abilities1.Spatial visualization 2.Perceptual Speed3.Numerical 4.Verbal Meaning5.Memory6.Word Fluency7.Reasoning•Abilities are viewed as relatively independent of one another•I.e., a person high in spatial ability maybe low in verbal meaning•Although more expansive than Spearman’s theory it is not incompatible with it•Task analyses led Thurstone to believe these 7 abilities were required•Many ifs not most activities require more than one primary ability
•E.g., Reading – requires – verbal meaning, word fluency, memory and reasoningGuilford’s (1961) Structure of Intellect•Recall Spearman’s g & s•Thurstones 7 Primary Mental Abilities•Guilford’s model proposed 120 factors•3 Basic: 1. Operations(act of thinking)2. Contents(terms of thinking –words, symbols)3. Products(ideas we come up with)•Within each basic category there are several sub factors•Operations: composed of cognition, memory, divergent thinking, convergent thinking & evaluation•Contents: composed of figural, symbolic, semantic, behavioral•Products:composed of implications, transformations, systems, relations, classes & units•Guilfords model is conceived of as a three-dimensional matrix•He postulates that at least 1 sub-factor from each category is present/necessary to perform a task•E.g., Reading involves semantics (contents) cognitive, memory, evaluation (operations) relations, implications (products)Burt-Vernon Theory of Intelligence•Hierarchical Theory
•Thus unlike Thurstone or Guilford the abilities are NOT viewed as independent but rather certain abilities are nested within othersThe Cognitive Approach to Intelligence •Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 12 pages?
- Winter '14