Intelligence.docx - Intelligence A concept that refers to individual differences in abilities to o Acquire knowledge o Think and reason effectively o

Intelligence.docx - Intelligence A concept that refers to...

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Intelligence A concept that refers to individual differences in abilities to: oAcquire knowledgeoThink and reason effectively oDeal adaptively with the environmentThe Psychometric Approach to IntelligencePsychometrics: the statistical study of psychological testsThe g factor (Spearman)oIntelligence performance governed by:-General intelligence (g)-Specific abilities Thurstone’s Primary abilities oIntelligence performance governed only by specific abilities Theories Spearman’s g factor(1904) - a theory of general intelligence termed gG is a kind of mental energywhich flows into everything a person doesA person who is good at mathematics is probably also good at reading comprehension, has awide vocabulary, etc.Thus, g or general intelligenceis a type of mental energy which allows one to be consistently good or poor at a variety of different tasksSpearman In addition to a g Spearman also proposed that there were special abilities termed S S is a mental energy specific to a taskIf you are good at math, it’s a combination of g and sS is necessary to account for variability across tasks (better at some than others)Theories cont’Thurstone’s (1938) Primary Mental Abilities 7 Primary Mental Abilities1.Spatial visualization 2.Perceptual Speed3.Numerical 4.Verbal Meaning5.Memory6.Word Fluency7.ReasoningAbilities are viewed as relatively independent of one anotherI.e., a person high in spatial ability maybe low in verbal meaningAlthough more expansive than Spearman’s theory it is not incompatible with itTask analyses led Thurstone to believe these 7 abilities were requiredMany ifs not most activities require more than one primary ability
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E.g., Reading – requires – verbal meaning, word fluency, memory and reasoningGuilford’s (1961) Structure of IntellectRecall Spearman’s g & sThurstones 7 Primary Mental AbilitiesGuilford’s model proposed 120 factors3 Basic: 1. Operations(act of thinking)2. Contents(terms of thinking –words, symbols)3. Products(ideas we come up with)Within each basic category there are several sub factorsOperations: composed of cognition, memory, divergent thinking, convergent thinking & evaluationContents: composed of figural, symbolic, semantic, behavioralProducts:composed of implications, transformations, systems, relations, classes & unitsGuilfords model is conceived of as a three-dimensional matrixHe postulates that at least 1 sub-factor from each category is present/necessary to perform a taskE.g., Reading involves semantics (contents) cognitive, memory, evaluation (operations) relations, implications (products)Burt-Vernon Theory of IntelligenceHierarchical Theory
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Thus unlike Thurstone or Guilford the abilities are NOT viewed as independent but rather certain abilities are nested within othersThe Cognitive Approach to Intelligence Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence
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