seven types of speech acts.docx - Kreidler(1998 dealt with seven kinds of speech acts Assertive utterances 1 Performative utterances 2 Verdictive

seven types of speech acts.docx - Kreidler(1998 dealt with...

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Kreidler (1998) dealt with seven kinds of speech acts 1 Assertive utterances 2 Performative utterances 3 Verdictive utterances 4 Expressive utterances 5 Directive utterances 6 Commissive utterances 7 Phatic utterances s In the assertive function speakers and writers use language to tell what they know or believe; assertive language is concerned with facts . The purpose is to inform . One can acquire a very good knowledge of a foreign language and yet not have a grasp of figurative meanings, hyperbole , understatement and euphemism as native speakers use these . What is the difference between the literal meanings of the following utterances and the way most native speakers would interpret them ? ) a) I’m so hungry I could eat a horse . ) b) If I’ve told you once, I’ve told you a hundred times ) c) It’s rather nice that we get paid for all the work we do . ) d) Willis is not exactly a genius . ) e) I’m sure your little brother likes your teasing him, Allen . 10a I voted for Aaronson in the last election . 11a Most plastics are made from soy beans . 12a Cape Ann Lighthouse is a mile from the beach . This is language concerned with knowledge, with cognition. It deals with data, what exists or existed, what is happening or has happened or not. So assertive utterances are either true or false, and generally they can be verified or falsified—not necessarily at the time of the utterance or by those who hear them, but in a general sense they are subject to empirical investigation . The above sentences are indirect assertives. Direct assertive utterances start with I or we and an assertive verb : 10b I say that I voted for Aaronson in the last election , 11b We declare that most plastics are made from soy beans . 12b I can now announce that Cape Ann Lighthouse is ten miles from the beach
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13 I bid three no-trump . 14 We accept your offer . 15 I declare this meeting adjourned . Speech acts that bring about the state of affairs they name are called performative : bids, blessings, firings, baptisms, arrests, marrying, declaring a mistrial. Performative utterances are valid if spoken by someone whose right to make them is accepted and in circumstances which are accepted as appropriate. The verbs include bet, declare, baptize, name, nominate, pronounce . Naturally there are strong limitations on what can be a performative utterance. First, the subject of the sentence must be I or we; “He declares this meeting adjourned” is not a performative utterance, as the term is used here. However, we need to distinguish between explicit and implicit performatives. “I declare this meeting adjourned” is an explicit performative; “This meeting is adjourned,” if spoken by the same person, is an implicit one. Second, the verb must be in the present tense. And, perhaps most important, the speaker must be recognized as having the authority to make the statement and the circumstances must be appropriate. “I pronounce you man and wife” and “I declare this a mistrial” are valid only if spoken by an appropriate person in socially determined situations. Thus many
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