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1.15.07 clar120

1.15.07 clar120 - CLAR 120 Class 2 `cities/urban landscapes...

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1/15/07 – CLAR 120 – Class 2 - ‘cities’/urban landscapes o one of the terms we use to explain complex societies o also the context of the production of things like gov’t, economies, etc that we attribute to complex societies o art, music, literature, plays/theatre/opera, restaurants, etc. – why we go to cities – cities produce things we normally associate with high civilization/cultural achievements o archaeologists like cities b/c they tend to produce lots of things we can study that might help us explain how people in those cultures lived/thought/did/their systems – a reflection of that culture problematic b/c sometimes those in the cities are the ones responsible for producing these and aren’t representative of the whole society – could be the elite, etc. – still, often make references to the non-elites even in that case (but must look at that carefully/bias) o we use textual/archaeological/environmental evidence - archaeological characteristics of cities: o size (measurable archaeologically) – number of houses – but don’t get the whole thing (expensive, etc) – methods: remote sensing techniques [sonar – don’t have to dig at all to get a sense of the size, etc], superimposition, excavation [always has to be a sample… ‘probably’ being key word to describe findings] o population [what we try to measure is degree of nucleation…when people come together and physically live in the same spot] o written language [writing for record-keeping impt] – survives on parchment, papyrus, stone, etc. – also for writing laws, religion [rules of behavior that define relationships to/between divinities] – most people couldn’t/can’t read; issue becomes symbolic expression of power/rules/etc of gov’t/etc. o crafts/craft specialization – jobs – workshops/activity areas/industrial areas [pottery-making, weaving, etc]
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o trade [long-distance trade] – some pre-urban societies also engaged in long-distance trade, but all cities did. Usually use the word ‘exchange’
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1.15.07 clar120 - CLAR 120 Class 2 `cities/urban landscapes...

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