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Unformatted text preview: Name J Anatomy of the Composite Cell ‘ - .- . 1. Define the following terms: organelle: _'____—__'________________________———————————-——‘—‘—‘_‘—_——— cell: —__—___________________’______——————————-———‘—‘—‘_'_'_'—_ but what functions do they have in common? v 2. Cells have differences that reflect their specific functions in the body, 3. Identify the following cell structures: 1. externalboundary of cell; regulates flow of materials into and out of the cell; site _________.__———— of cell signaling 2. containsdigestive enzymes of many varieties; “suicide sac” of the cell _______,____———-——-— __________._———— 3. scattered throughout the cell; major site of ATP synthesis 4. slender extensions of the plasma membrane that increase its surface area _________.———-—- 5. stored glycogen granules, crystals, pigments; present in some cell types __________.———————- 6. membranous system consisting of flattened sacs and vesicles; packages proteins 3 __________._———— for export 7. control center of the cell; necessary for cell division and cell life 8. two rod-shaped bodies near the nucleus; associated with the formation of the mitotic spindle ___________———— 9. dense nuclear body; packaging site for ribosomes _____________———-— 10. contractile elements of the cytoskaleton 11. membranous tubules covered with ribosomes; involved in intracellular transport ______________——— of proteins 12. attached to membrane systems or scattered in the cytoplasm; site of protein ____________._————— synthesis 13. threadlike structures in the nucleus; contain genetic material (DNA) __________._————— _______—-———-—- 14. site of free radical detoxification 49 ow 50 Review Sheet 4 Differences and Similarities in Cell Structure 4. In the following diagram, label all parts provided with a leader line. 5. For each of the following cell types, list (a) one important structural characteristic observed in the laboratory, and (b) the function that the structure complements or ensures. squamous epithelium sperm smooth muscle red blood cells a. b. _ Q Q Q Q Q Q4. Q anQ 959 QQQQQ£21£££PI I 6 ® 15 ® ® ® ® @ 6“ 6 ® ® 6 Q G G ®"i'@”@‘@‘@”3 Q '3 Q ‘3 i Review Sheet 4 51 6. What is the consequence of the red blood cell being anuéleate (without a nucleus)? _______._._ Did it ever have a nucleus? (Use an appropriate reference.) If so, when? 7. Of the four cells observed microscopically (squamous epithelial cells, red blood cells, smooth muscle cells, and sperm), which has the smallest diameter? Which is longest? Cell Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis 8. Identify the three phases of mitosis in the following photomicrographs. C. 9. What is the function of mitotic cell division? 10. Draw the phases of mitosis for a cell that contains four chromosomes as its diploid, or 2n, number. 52 11. 12. 13. Review Sheet 4 Complete or respond to the following statements: Division of the 1_ is referred to as mitosis. Cytokinesis 1. is division of the A . The major structural difference between chromatin and chromosomes is that the latter 2_ are __3_. Chromosomes attach to the spindle fibers by undivided structures called A. If a cell undergoes mi- 3' tosis but not cytokinesis, the product is_5_.The structure ' that acts as a scaffolding for chromosomal attachment 4 and movement is called the i._1_is the period of cell life when the cell is not involved in division.Three cell populations in the body that do not routinely undergo cell division are _8_, land _11. WW 9. 10. Using the key, categorize each of the events described below according to the phase in which it occurs. Key: a. anaphase b. interphase c. metaphase d. prophase e. telophase 1. Chromatin coils and condenses, forming chromosomes. 2. The chromosomes areV shaped. _________ 3. The nuclear envelope re-forms. . _____.___.. 4. Chromosomes stop moving toward the poles. 5. Chromosomes line up in the center of the cell. 6. The nuclear envelope fragments. 8. DNA replication occurs. __________ 7. The mitotic spindle forms. 9. Centrioles replicate. 10. Chromosomes first appear to be duplex structures. 11. Cleavage furrow forms. 1 and 12. The nuclear envelope is completely absent. fiaoaoegsgsessgs: What is the physical advantage of the chromatin coiling and condensing to form short chromosomes at the onset of mitosis? ...
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