Exam 1 study guide.docx - Advanced Equine Health Care and...

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Advanced Equine Health Care and Management Spring 2018 Exam 1 study guide – Multiple choice, True or False, and short answer Lecture 1: Normals for horses Heart o HR 36-48 bpm o always listen to both sides of heart - remember that for everything L is the horse’s L and R is the horse’s R, no matter how you’re looking at it Lungs o RR 12 breaths/min o always listen from both sides o crackling in bottom of chest near heart => fluid in lungs Temp 98-101 o never say temp is normal, always give numeric value bc every horse is different and the owner might know better GI tract o 4 quadrants – L & R, dorsal & ventral o minimum sounds = 1 sound per minute in each quadrant; can vary by quadrant Eyes o make sure both are fully open o shouldn’t have discharge o sclera shouldn’t be injected (red) or jaundice (icteric/yellow) o scratch in cornea indicates something in an eyelid, direction of scratch would match either regular eyelid or 3 rd eyelid Ears o earplugs forgotten in ears are common irritants o auricular plaque from blackflies can present Nose o Shouldn’t be blood, mucus, purulent (infective) discharge, or food food coming out of nose is horse choking; choking in horses is not respiratory distress o look for mass or foreign body Mouth o shouldn’t be any discharge o foul odor (halitosis) indicates horse is not eating = colic o look for any abnormal masses o gums (gingiva) should be pink (not injected or pale) and have CRT of < 3 seconds cyanotic edges = purple rings around teeth or edges of lips, indicates insufficient oxygen lymph nodes
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o submandibular – NOT the bump at the crease of the neck; that is the thyroid gland o usually palpable, size of almonds o shouldn’t be painful when palpated o should not be draining musculoskeletal system o should be bearing weight equally on all 4 limbs shifting lameness frequent as horse attempts to accommodate for injury and ends up causing soreness in limbs that are compensating – NOT necessarily lyme disease o swelling and heat are abnormal o places to take pulse – digital, submandibular, facial, metatarsal good to get blood from facial artery bc jugular is overused and horse tolerates facial well (just owner that gets upset)
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o hoof pain – use hoof testers to test both sides of frog, at every nail to make sure there is no hot nail, and around heel urination/defecation o evidence in stall, field is near impossible o Constant posturing to urinate with no success is a frequent predecessor to colic Lecture 2 – Cardiovascular System heart physical characteristics o ~size of a basketball o same quadrants as humans (L & R atria, L & R ventricles) o valves aortic semilunar bicuspid (mitral) on L side tricuspid on R side pulmonary semilunar o Chordae tendinae – many individual cords that attach valves to protect in case one breaks Development o Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) – infant murmur, normal bc hole in heart from fetal development takes 72 hours to close how the heart beats o the cardiac conduction system
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